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10 Largest and Popular Hindu Temples in the World

Hindu religion is considered to be one of the most ancient and rich religions in the entire world and owing to the rich economic conditions of the olden times, many kings, rulers and emperors constructed various temples that were both architecturally stellar and really colossal in size. These temples were the centre of attraction for many people not only in the early ages, but even now. These temples not only aided in the economic prosperity of the country but also helped the people in forwarding the knowledge and teachings of the Hindu religion through the ages.
Hindu Temples have been constructed not only in India but throughout the world, with some of the largest Hindu Temples being outside the Indian sub-continent.
Most of the ancient Hindu Temples were constructed by the dynasties like the Pandyas, Chalukyas, Pallavas, Rashtrakutas etc. They were really prosperous dynasties and had amazing architecture which till date, never ceases to amaze people. Most of the South Indian Temples were built in the Dravidian style of architecture, the North Indian temples were usually built in the Nagara style and the Central Indian Temples were built in the Vesara style of architecture. Dravidian style of architecture being the most famous one.
Hindu Temples outside India are spread in countries like Cambodia,   Indonesia,   Australia etc.  In  this article we  will take  a  look  at        10 Largest and Popular Hindu Temples in the World.

1.  Angkor Wat, Cambodia

Angkor Wat in Cambodia

Angkor Wat, which literally translates to “Capital Temple” is in Cambodia and is one of the largest temples in the entire world, constructed on a site measuring 162.6 hectares or (1,626,000 m2; 402 acres). It was built as a Hindu temple devoted to the God Vishnu for the Empire of Khmer, and gradually it transformed into a Buddhist temple arounf the late 12th century. It was constructed by King Suryavarman in the early years of the 12th century in Yaśodharapura, present-day Angkor, which is the capital of Khmer, as was his state temple and eventually, mausoleum. Splitting from the Shaiva tradition of their predecessor kings, Angkor Wat was dedicated to God Vishnu. As the best-maintained temple at the site, it is one of the biggest to have remained a major religious centre since its foundation. The temple is at the pinnacle of the high classical style of the Khmer architecture. It has now become a symbol of Cambodia, and also appears on its national flag, and it is the country’s major attraction for tourists.

2.  Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Karnataka

Sri Ranganthaswamy Temple in Tamil Nadu

Ranganathaswamy temple which is generally referred to as “Sri Ranganathaswamy” in Srirangapatna, and in the Mandya district of the Karnataka state, of India, is devoted to the Hindu god Ranganatha who is considered to be a manifestation of the god Vishnu. It is one of the 5 most important pilgrimage sites of Sri Vaishnavism along with the river Kaveri for the devotees of God Ranganatha. These five holy sites all are together known as Pancharanga Kshetrams in South India. Since, Srirangapatna is the initial temple starting from the upstream of Kaveri, the deity is called Adi Ranga which translates to “first Ranga”. The city of Srirangapatna, also derives its name from this very temple, and is situated on an island in the Kaveri River.

3.  Akshardham, Delhi

Akshardham Temple in Delhi

The Akshardham Temple is located on the banks of the Yamuna River in the capital of India, Delhi. It spans over in almost 100 acres of land. This temple is a mixture of Hindu religion and art. There are many statues of Gods you will find right in the centre section of the temple like Shiv Parvati, Radha Krishna, Sita Ram and Lakshmi Narayanan. The entire temple is made up of sandstone and marble. It also has a pith called Gajendra pith that constitutes all the animal kingdom. It has 148 full sized carved elephants, 42 carved birds and 125 carved human sculptures that have been made in pink stone. The temple consists of 200 sculptured stone figurines of India’s famous sages, Acharyas, monks and Godly incarnations. It also consists of 234 elaborately carved pillars, 9 decorated domes and 20,000 statues of holy figures of India.

4. Thillai Nadaraja Temple, Tamil Nadu

Thillai Nadaraja Temple in Tamil Nadu

The Thillai Nadaraja Temple is located in Chidambaram town of Tamil Nadu state. The temple has been devoted to Lord Shiva in the “Ananda Tandava” pose or Nadaraja pose. It stretches over many acres of land. The temple contains images of Shiva and the Goddess Parvati. The temple was restored by the many different dynasties like the Pallava, Chola, Pandya, and Chera etc. Every Gopuram has about seven storeys with almost 50 carved sculptures and there are five different sabhas in the temple: Chit Sabha, Deva Sabha, Nritya Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

5.  Belur Math, Kolkata

Belur Math in Kolkata

Belur Math is one of the most exquisite and one of the largest Hindu temples in the city of Kolkata. It is also the centre of Ramakrishna Mission, founded by Swami Vivekananda. The distinguished part about it is that it has been built in such a way that it looks like a mosque, temple and church from every view. It is actually an amalgamation of Buddhist, Rajput, Hindu, Islamic and Christian architecture.

6.  Annamalaiyar Temple, Tamil Nadu

Annamalaiyar Temple in Tamil Nadu

The temple is devoted to Lord Shiva and is one of the biggest temples in India. The Shiva Linga of this temple is known as Agni Linga. It is also called Arunachaleswarar, that also means one of the many forms of Shiva. It spans in approximately 25 acres of land. The temple was constructed by the Chola rulers in the late 9th century. The temple has various halls and four big gateways. There is also a massive hall with a 1000 pillars constructed by King Krishna Devaraya.

7.  Ekambareswarar Temple, Tamil Nadu

Ekambareswarar Temple in Tamil Nadu

The Ekambareswarar temple is the biggest temple in the city of Kanchipuram, in Tamil Nadu. The Temple is devoted to Lord Shiva. It spans over an area of 23 acres. The temple was constructed by Paranthaka Chola in 650 A.D. The temple was built in a way that in the months of March and April the sunrays fall directly on the main Shiva Linga. The inner walls of this temple have 1008 Shiva Lingam.

8.  Jambukeswarar Temple, Tamil Nadu

Jambukeswarar Temple in Tamil Nadu

The Jambukeswarar Temple is situated in Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. It is one of the panchabhoota sthalams which means one of Shiva’s Temples that represent five elements of water, air, land, fire, and sky. The temple is devoted to water. The temple has an underground stream of water. The temple has an amazing archaeological design. It is one of the most influential Shiva temples in Trichy constructed around 1,800 years ago.

9. Meenakshi Temple, Tamil Nadu

Meenakshi Temple in Tamil Nadu

The Meenakshi Temple is an exquisite sample of Dravidian architecture. The temple represents two Gods: Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati or Meenakshi. It spans over an area of 17.3 acres. The temple was named after the Goddess Meenakshi also called Parvati. The temple was constructed by King Jayavarman Kulasekara Pandyan in 13th century. The temple was restored by a Nayak ruler Viswanatha Nayakar in the late 16th century.

10. Vaitheeswaran Koil, Tamil Nadu

Vaitheeswaran Koil in Tamil Nadu

The temple Vaitheeswaran Koil is devoted to Lord Shiva. It is situated in Tamil Nadu state of India. The remarkability of the temple is that some of the Shivalingas inside the temple have been worshipped by Lord Ram, Lakshman and the Vulture King Jatayu. It is also believed that the holy water of this temple has the ability to cure all diseases.

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10 Biggest Shopping Malls in India

Shopping malls are the manifestation of millennial pop culture! For a city to establish their prowess as a smart, strong and modern, shopping malls with great architecture are great means to achieving it.  Beautiful architecture, large open spaces, hundreds of luxury fashion stops and great food options sum up the package of a great shopping mall experience!

India has some really beautiful and large shopping malls. India has approximately 1100 operational big and small shopping centers. These range from 2,500,000 sq ft to 130,000 sq ft, with about 40 malls of large leasable area.

Shopping malls or Shopping Precinct are not just great pieces of architecture but also a great spectacle of technology. Infusing the elements of elevators, lifts and digital billboards truly elevates the shopping experience. Ironically, ever since online shopping has taken over the world by a storm the “Shopping” element from the shopping malls has decreased. But! Today shopping malls are not just for your shopping ventures and offer a whole lot more! They have amusement parks, gaming arcades, pubs, food joints and so much more. These malls can be both open-air type or enclosed malls.

Here, we have complied the list of 10 Biggest Shopping Malls in India :

1. Lulu International Shopping Mall, Kerala

Lulu International Mall, Kerala

With a total area of 2,500,000 sq ft, Lulu International Shopping Mall is the largest shopping mall in India. It is located in the city of Kochi, Kerala. It has an undisputed footfall of more than 80,000 per day, making it one of the most visited places in Kerala. It has more than 215 stores which includes food courts, restaurants, family and friends entertainment zones, a multiplex, ice skating rink and bowling alley. If you ever go to Kochi, Lulu Mall is a must visit for truly complete package of entertainment!

2. World Trade Park, Jaipur

World Trade Park

After Lulu Mall, the World Trade Park is the largest shopping mall in India by a size of 2,400,000 sq ft (220,000 m²) gross leasable area. It resides in the heart of Jaipur, Rajasthan. It is can be seen as a festival residing in a magnificent piece of architecture. It includes a display system where 24 projectors create a single image on the ceiling. Fun Fact! World Trade Park was inaugurated by the King of Bollywood, Shah Rukh Khan. 

3. DLF Mall of India, Noida

DLF Mall Of India, Noida NCR

Constructed quite recently by the the DLF group, the DLF Mall of India is the 3rd largest shopping mall in India by size 2,000,000 sq ft (190,000 m²) gross leasable area. What makes it not only a great place for shopping but also entertainment if that there are 5 different zones for your preference, such as “Market Place“, “International Boulevard“,  “The High Street“,  “Family World” and “Leisure Land“.

4. Phoenix Marketcity, Bengaluru

Phoenix Marketcity (Bangalore)

After the Dlf Mall of India, we have the Phoenix Marketcity located in Bengaluru, Karnataka, which is the largest mall in Bangalore and 4th largest in India (by area). It occupies 1,600,000 sq ft (150,000 m2) with 1,400,000 sq ft (130,000 m2) of retail space on a total of 4 floors, with over 270 stores, a 9-screen PVR Cinemas multiplex and food court.

5. Elante Mall, Chandigarh

Elante Mall, Chandigarh

The Elante Mall is the premier attraction of the city of Chandigarh, India. It is the 2nd largest shopping mall in North India, with the gross leasable area of 1,150,000 sq ft. One of the most interesting facts about the Elante is that it generates its own electricity ! Government had declined to provide electricity to the mall. Thus, it runs on generators and requires a lot of diesel every day.

6. Esplanade One, Bhubaneswar

Esplanade One, Bhubaneswar

Built in the year 2018, Esplanade One is the largest shopping mall in the city of Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. It has been developed by the Forum Group and The Blackstone Group. It is the sixth largest mall in India, with a total commercial space of 1,000,000 sq ft. It is spread over ten floors, designed by the Practice Design Pvt Ltd.

7. Phoenix Marketcity, Chennai

Drone shot of Phoenix Marketcity

Esplanade One shares the rank of being India’s sixth-largest shopping mall with Phoenix Marketcity, Chennai, with both standing at a gross leasable area of 1 million sq ft. Phoenix Marketcity mall gives prominence to an 11-screen multiplex, Luxe Cinemas from Jazz Cinemas, and Chennai’s first IMAX theatre.

8. Viviana Mall, Maharashtra

Viviana Mall, Thane, Maharashtra

With a beautiful and large architecture, the Viviana Mall situated in Thane, Maharashtra, is the next mall on our list of the biggest shopping malls in India. Owning to its ideal location on the Eastern Express Highway, it is well-connected and accessible from all areas of the city. It has been built on a 13-acre plot, which is spread over an area of about 1 million sq. ft. The mall has over 250 stores which comprises 19 large and small chief tenants.

9. Fun Republic Mall, Lucknow

Fun Republic Mall, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow

Built in the mid-2000s by the Zee Group at a cost of 800 million rupees, Fun Republic Mall is the largest mall in the state of Uttar Pradesh, located in the city of Lucknow. Having been built in an area of more than 970,000 sq ft (3,70,000 sq ft of leasable area), it is one of the largest shopping malls in India. Fun Republic Mall has one of highest footfalls among top grossing malls of India at about 25,000-28,000 on weekdays and 37,000-40,000 on weekends.

10. Mantri Square, Bengaluru

Front view of Mantri Square, Bengaluru

The Mantri Square is one the nations premier shopping malls. It situated in the Malleswaram locality, Bengaluru, Karnataka. Mantri Square is one of the largest malls in the country with the a gross leasable area of 924,000 sq ft (85,800 m²). It has Six-screen INOX multiplex, Amoeba bowling alley and gaming center and Food court-dining area is spread over 100,000 sq ft with 39 food and beverage joints.

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Top 12 Foreign Tourist Destinations in India

Being one of the world’s most culturally rich and physically diverse land. From the mighty Himalayas to the undying horizons of the Indian ocean; The holy waters of the Ganges at the banks of Varanasi to the golden lands of Rajasthan, India is a feast for anyone who wants to find something incredible!

The tourism in India contributes to a solid 9.4% of the GDP in 2017. Tourism adds to 8% of the nations total employment. There were over 10 millions tourist in India in 2017. Also, India ranks 9th in the world for natural and cultural resources.

The seekers of wanderlust have always marked India as a “Must Visit” and always aim to travel through out the magnificent diverse lands. Though India has a gazillion places to offer, there are some which just land on the top of the bucket list. Here, we have the list of our Top 12 Foreign Tourist Destinations in India which are a must see:

1. Agra

Taj Mahal, Agra

Every traveler who seeks to truly see the world, desires to visit the 7 wonders of the world at least once in their lifetime. Thus, it leads them to the number 1 wonder, the Taj Mahal at Agra. It is the most visited destination of Indian Subcontinent. The Taj Mahal (crowning jewel of the Mughal Era) is obviously the head attraction of the city, but Agra has a lot more to offer, such as Agra Fort, Akbar’s Tomb, Tomb of Itimad-ud-Daulah, Mehtab Bagh, Jama Masjid and Fatehpur Sikri, which are a must visit when in the city.

2. Delhi

Qutub Minar, Delhi

The Capital of India, Delhi comes close to the city of Agra in terms of foreign tourists. It is not just for the diplomatic and business visits but these foreign visitors also flock up due to the rich heritage and architectural wonders such as Qutub Minar , Red Fort, The Jama Masjid,  The India Gate and The Humayun’s Tomb.

3. Goa

Goa Beach

The “Party Capital of India“or Goa is ceaselessly swarmed by foreigners. What makes Goa a millennial pop hot spot are the endless night beach parties, cozy comfortable shacks, beautiful and magnificent beaches of international standards, thrilling and thriving adventure water sports, and delightful cuisines! Many Russians and Europeans take it as a rule to visit Goa at least once a year. The hospitable locals contribute majorly in the footfall. Goa is also well known for being one of the best destination Honeymoon.

4. Kerala

Kerala backwaters in Kerala, India

From the ancient times, Kerala has always presented a unique essence of India to foreign travelers. The magical backwaters of Alleppey, Kerala; the healing and refreshing Ayurvedic spa centers in Kochi and Trivandrum; the serene tea estates of Munnar; beautiful beaches of Kollam; the luxuriant forests of Wayanad; the mesmerizing views in Thekkady all add up to a wonderful experience of Kerala.

Foreigner tourists truly fall in love with the greenery that houses the state; as well as delicious, authentic Kerala delicacies and the quirky South Indian heritage.

5. Leh-Ladakh

Pangong Lake, Ladakh

Present in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, Leh and Ladakh house some of the most spectacular mountain ranges, barren valleys and mountain pass. Ladakh is also known as “Land Of Passes“. The highest motorable road in the entire world is at the “Khardung La”, Ladakh. This adds to the adventure tourism in Leh Ladakh; also including fishing, wildlife expedition and high scale trekking. Pangong Tso is a must visit tourist destination in Ladakh.

6. Rajasthan

A Fort in Rajasthan

Rajasthan or we can say the Land of Palaces and Heritage is the next hot spot on our list. From desert scrub to holy lakes, Rajasthan just keeps growing and you will keep on exploring! The chief cities which are a must visit when in Rajasthan are Jaipur, Udaipur and Jodhpur (but if you have the luxury, don’t just stop at these!). Jaipur is the city of Palaces, on the other hand Udaipur is the The “City of Lakes” or “Venice of the East”. Udaipur is also entitled as India’s most Romantic city, thus a popular destination for honeymoon couples. The Mehrangarh Fort, Jodhpur is a glorious piece of architecture and is visible from any part of the Blue City.

7. Varanasi

Evening Aarti, Varanasi

Varanasi is India’s most famous religious and pilgrimage land. It is also known as the photographer’s mecca and is therefore a premier attraction for foreign tourism. Varanasi has a very unique feel to itself which is not common to most tourist places. The beautiful ‘Matths‘, serene ghats with enchanting evening ‘aartis’, the boating expeditions in the holy waters of Ganga, through the beautiful sunrise and into healing sunsets, the sights of mysticism by ‘sadhus‘; all of this presents a new world and a unmatched charm to the place which is topped by a constant liveliness in the city as if a festival is there everyday!

8. Ajanta and Ellora caves

Ajanta - Ellora Caves, Maharashtra

Ajanta and Ellora caves are astoundingly carved into hillside rocks, present in the state of Maharashtra. Both of these caves are UNESCO World Heritage site. The Ellora caves are about 34 in number, whereas the Ajanta Caves are about 29 in total. The origin of the Ajanta Caves are all Buddhist and on the other hand the Ellora Caves are a mixture of Buddhist, Hindu and Jain religions.

The most unfathomable fact about both these caves is that they were crafted by hand, that is, with only a hammer and chisel. The remarkable Kailasa Temple, well known as the Kailash Temple, present at the Cave 16 at Ellora, is unquestionably the most famous attraction.

9. Havelock Island

Water sports in Havelock Island

Home to some of the most beautiful and serene beaches with clean white sand such as the Kala Patthar Beach, Radha Nagar Beach, Elephanta Beach, Havelock Island is the one of the most beautiful islands in India. It is also well known for a variety of adventure water sports activities such as Sea Walk, Scuba Diving and Snorkeling. The Scuba diving experience of the Havelock Island is a major attraction to foreign tourists. It is also super popular as a great honeymoon destination.

10. Dharamshala

Monastery in Dharamshala

As the head of Buddhist culture in India, Dharamshala is one of the favorites for foreign tourists. The place is flocked by Spiritual seekers, wanderers and regular foreign travelers to learn about Buddhism and start its practice under a teacher. The quiet mountains, the spectacular landscapes, adventure activities, local cafe culture, and generally relaxed vibe add to the charm of the place. Foreign visitors have a keen interest in Norbulingka Monastery, Triund Hill trek and the Dalai Lama Temple Complex.

11. Uttarakhand

Valley of Flowers, Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand is an ultimate tourist destination and a popular choice among foreign travelers due its multiple attractions such as the city of Rishikesh, Jim Corbett National Park, Valley of Flowers and Nainital! It presents to you a complete package of spiritual escape, adventurous expeditions, beautiful landscapes and magical boat ventures! Uttrakhand attracts a great tourist crown every year because of all that it offers.

12. Assam

Tea Plantations in Assam

With a rich biodiversity, flora and fauna, the state of Assam is one of the best tourist destinations in India and the best in the East India! Assam is the land of untouched natural beauty, explicit bio-diversity, serene and well maintained tea plantations, unique islands, astounding religious places and warm people; which sum up to a picture perfect holiday. The city of Guwahati, Kaziranga National Park, Majuli, Manas Nation Park all are the top spots to visit in Assam.

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25 Famous Indian Spices with their Hindi Names

India, since time immemorial has been called “The Land of Spices“. Major trade routes were connected to India because India exported its spices to places like Mesopotamia, Egypt, Sumeria, China and Arabia etc. There is also a mention of cloves in the Ramanyana which shows us that spices have been grown and acknowledged in India since a very long time. Spices from India were also exported to locations like Carthage, Rome and Alexandria as mentioned in ancient Roman writings dating back to 1st Century AD.
In the early ages, it was the trading and export of spices that led to the country becoming a prosperous one and attracted a lot of foreign travellers from around the world. India was one of the richest countries in the world at the time owing to the presence of trade routes which allowed the export of materials like spices and cloth in order to generate that amount of wealth.
The Arabians had close relationships with the Indian spice merchants and they were exported to the west by the Arab people. However, they discouraged any kind of competition in business and kept their source of spices a secret from the western world. They even made up stories of these spices like cinnamon growing in highly dangerous and inaccessible areas like gorges filled with poisonous snakes to entice the people into paying heavy prices for the India spices.
Europeans also travelled a lot in search of spices and Indian spices were in huge demands at that time. The spices were really difficult to produce and were even more expensive than gold back then. It is also believed that the Parthian wars were fought by the Europeans largely to maintain the trade routes to India for the exports of various kinds of spices.
The Indian Sub Continent alone is responsible for 75 percent of the world’s total spice exports. There are about a 109 varieties of spices produced throughout the world and our country alone produces more than 65 varieties.
The 109 varieties of spices produced are standardised by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO).
There are a number of spices which need processing and over the years India has become a technology led and highly mature processor of various spices. These processing techniques led to export of about 1,028,060 tons of spices in 2017-18 which generated a revenue of Rs 17,929.55 crores in those years.

Given below are 25 Famous Indian Spices with their Hindi Names :

1. Asafoetida, (हींग, Heeng)


States: Punjab, Kashmir
Climatic Conditions: 20-30 degree Celsius
Cost: Rs 770 per kilogram
Benefits Antibiotic and other medicinal properties

2. Bishop’s Weed, (अजवायन, Ajwain)

Bishop's Weed

States: Rajasthan, Gujrat
Climatic Conditions: 35-45 degree Celsius
Cost: Rs 300 per kilogram
Benefits: Digestion aid, Antiseptic, Relieves abdominal pain

3. Cardmom, (इलायची, Elaichi)


States: Kerala, Maharashtra
Climatic Conditions: 18-35 degree Celsius, 75 percent Humidity
Cost: Rs 2000 per kilogram
Benefits: Flavouring, Perfumery

4. Poppy Seed, (खस खस, Khas Khas)

Poppy Seeds

States: Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir
Climatic Conditions: Temperate and Sub Tropical
Cost: Rs 500 per kilogram
Benefits: Food additive, Sedative, Nutritive

5. Chilli, (मिर्च, Mirch)


States: Manipur, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujrat, Kerala
Climatic Conditions: 20-25 degree Celsius with humidity
Cost: Rs 100 per kilogram
Benefits: Flavouring, Cancer treatment, Vitamin C

6. Cinnamon, (दालचीनी, Daalchini)


States: Kerala
Climatic Conditions: 27 degree Celsius with 2500 mm of rainfall
Cost: Rs 500 per kilogram
Benefits: Antifungal, Can check nausea, Oil extraction

7. Clove, (लौंग, Laung)


States: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka
Climatic Conditions: 25-35 degree Celsius, 1500 mm of Rainfall
Cost: Rs 1200 per kilogram
Benefits Used in Soaps, Perfumes, Helpful in Diabetes, Reduces Toothaches

8. Coriander, (धनिया, Dhaniya)


States: Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Assam
Climatic Conditions: 20-30 degree Celsius
Cost: Rs 300 per kg
Benefits: Seasoning, Flavouring, Garnishing

9. Cumin, (जीरा, Jeera)


States: Gujrat, Rajasthan
Climatic Conditions: 25-30 degree Celsius, Less Rainfall
Cost: Rs 375 per kilogram
Benefits: Antistringent, Carminative, Stimulant

10. Fennel, (सौंफ, Saunf)


States: Northern India
Climatic Conditions: 15-25 degree Celsius
Cost: Rs 150 per kilogram
Benefits: Flavouring, Stimulant, Carminative

11. Fenugreek, (मेंथी, Methi)


States: Rajasthan, Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh
Climatic Conditions: 10-30 degree Celsius
Cost: Rs 30 per kilogram
Benefits: Aphrodisiac, Hair Oil, Carminative

12. Garlic, (लहसुन, Lehsun)


States: Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan
Climatic Conditions: Temperate Climate
Cost: Rs 100 per kilogram
Benefits: Antibacterial, Fungicidal, Insecticidal

13. Ginger, (अदरक, Adrak)


States: Punjab, Sikkim, Meghalaya
Climatic Conditions:  20-30 degree Celsius, 150-300 mm rainfall
Cost: Rs 200 per kilogram
Benefits: Flavouring, Antibiotic, Carminative

14. Mint, (पुदीना, Pudina)


States: Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana
Climatic Conditions: 25-35 degree Celsius
Cost:  Rs 500 per kilogram
Benefits: Antibacterial, Preservative, Flavouring

15. Mustard, (सरसों, Sarson)


States: Punjab, Assam, Bihar
Climatic Conditions: 15-25 degree Cesius
Cost: Rs 300 per. kilogram
Benefits: Preservative, Antioxidant

16. Saffron, (केसर, Kesar)


States: Kashmir
Climatic Conditions: 15-25 degree Celsius, above 2000 m sea level
Cost:  Rs 1,50,000 per kilogram
Benefits: Flavouring, Antioxidant, Medicinal

17. Parsley, (अजमोद, Ajmod)


States: Karnataka
Climatic Conditions: 25-35 degree Celsius,  average pH should be 6
Cost: Rs 70 per kilogram
Benefits: Garnishing, Flavouring

18. Basil, (तुलसी, Tulsi)


States: Himachal Pradesh, Punjab
Climatic Conditions: 10-20 degree Celsius
Cost: Rs 120 per kilogram
Benefits: Medicinal, Insecticide, Bactericide

19. Rosemary, (रोजमैरी, Rosemary)


States:  Northern India
Climatic Conditions: 20-30 degree Celsius
Cost:  Rs 300 per kilogram
Benefits: Anti inflammatory, Detoxifier, Carcinogen Blocker

20. Turmeric, (हल्दी, Haldi)


States: Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa
Climatic Conditions: 20-30 degree Celsius
Cost: Rs 50 per kilogram
Benefits: Anti inflammatory,  Anti oxidant

21. Tamarind, (इमली, Imli)


States: Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu
Climatic Conditions: 20-30 degree Celsius
Cost: Rs 200 per kilogram

22. Vanilla, (वनीला, Vanilla)


States: Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Climatic Conditions: 25-35 degree Celsius
Cost: Rs 25,000 per kilogram
Benefits: Flavouring

23. Nutmeg, (जायफल, Jaifal)


States: Uttar Pradesh, Punjab
Climatic Conditions: 25-35 degree Celsius
Cost: Rs 550 per kilogram
Benefits: Stimulant, Carminative, Astringent

24. Star Anise, (चक्र फूल, Chakra Fool)


States: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka
Climatic Conditions: 20-35 degree Celsius
Cost: Rs 350 per kilogram
Benefits: Anti-bacterial, Carminative, Diuretic, Stomachic

25. Tejpat, (तेज पत्ता, Tej Patta)


States: Punjab, Kerala, West Bengal
Climatic Conditions: 25-35 degree Celsius
Cost: Rs 50 per kilogram
Benefits: Flavouring, Hypoglycemic, Stimulant

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12 Most Popular Freshwater Fish of Indian Rivers

Providing employment to over 14 million people, Indian Fishing industry is one of the most important industries for the country! According to the surveys of FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation), the Indian Fishing industry has grown 10 times from 1947 to 1990, and has an ever growing scope. The fresh water resources of India has about 195,210 kilometers (121,300 mi) of rivers and canals, 2.9 million hectares of small and large reservoirs, 2.4 million hectares of ponds and lakes. The Freshwater aquaculture alone accounts for nearly 55% of the total fish industry of India.

Since the last decade, Rivers in India have emerged as not only the source for irrigation system and agriculture, but also for producing and contributing in the fishery sector. 1 percent of India’s total annual GDP rate is the contribution of the Fishing and Aquaculture . West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh are most reputed contributors in the fishery sector in India.

Indian subcontinent is blessed with some of the rarest and tastiest fishes in the world. This fishes are not only famous as a food delicacy but also well known for their benefits in Medicine. Fish oil, Fish emulsion and even Fish glue are important for export industry. Thus here, we have curated a list of 12 Most Popular Freshwater Fish of Indian Rivers: 

1. Rohu – Labeo Rohita

The Rohu Fish

The Rohu, belonging to the species of Carp family, is found in rivers of Indian subcontinent. They contribute extensively in the aquaculture of the country. The large silver coloured Rohu fish is not only an important fish for the fish industry but also a very famous and tasty delicacy in India. It is most commonly eaten in Bhojpur, Madhya Pradesh. It is cheap and tasty which makes it a popular choice among masses! Adult fish can reach 45 kg (99 lb) of maximum weight and 2 m (6.6 ft) of maximum length  (but average Rohu has length around 12 m (1.6 ft).)

2.Hilsa – Ilish Shad

Ilish or Hilsa shad is a type of freshwater (brackish water) fish. It is very popular in the states of West Bengal, Odisha, Tripura, Assam and Andhra Pradesh. Illish fish is especially popular in Andhra Pradesh and Bengal.

~ Pulasa Fish
In, Andhra Pradesh it is known as Pulasa, found in the Godavari river. It is one of the tastiest and costliest of all the varieties of the popular fish found in India. A popular saying in Andhra Pradesh says–

“Pustelu ammi ayina Pulasa tinocchu”

The Hilsa Fish

Meaning: It is always worth eating Pulasa Fish even if you have to sell the Mangalsutra.

3. Catla – Indian Carp

The Catla fish

The Katla or Catla, also famous as ‘Major Indian Carp’, is commonly found in rivers and lakes of Indian subcontinent. It is one of the most renowned species of freshwater fish. The Catla, The  Rohu Labeo and The Mrigal carp are the most important Carp fish of the aquaculture freshwater fish in India. It attains a length of upto 182 cm (6.0 ft) and a weight of about 38.6 kg (85 lb).

4. Tilapia – Cichlid Fish

The Tilapia Fish

Tilapia, the “Cichlid Fish”, are mainly freshwater fish have a home in shallow waters, rivers, lakes and also commonly found residing in brackish water of India. Tilapia are among the few of the world’s most consumed fish, along with the types of Carps and Salmon. It is also one of the most important fish in the aquaculture of India.

5. Tengra – Mystus Tengara

A captured Mystus Tengara

Tengra, also known as, Tengna is a small catfish and one of the tastiest fish in Bengal. Most famous of these Bengali recipes is ‘Tangra Macher Jhal’. Tengra fish is found mostly in fresh water rivers in the states of Bihar, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and Bengal of Indian subcontinent. It has a total length of 18.0 cm (7.08 in).

6. Magur – Walking Catfish

The Walking Catfish

Magur is a medium sized walking catfish species of fish, which is native to the rivers of Indian subcontinent. The Magur or ‘walking catfish’ is an omnivorous species. It is a renowned delicacy in the states of Assam, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh of India. It has an elongated body type which reaches almost 0.5 m (1.6 ft) in length and 1.2 kg (2.6 lb) by weight. It has got its name “Walking Catfish” for its ability to “walk” or wiggle across dry land in search of food or suitable habitat.

7. Kajoli – Ailia Coila

Pile of caught Kajoli Fish

Kajoli, also known as the Gangetic ailia or Ailia Coila, is mostly found in large freshwater systems and connected water bodies. This species has a lot of importance to local commercial fisheries of Indian subcontinent. This species grows to 30 centimetres (12 in) in length.

8. Rani – Pink Perch

The Rani Fish

The Rani fish or Pink Perch is a freshwater type gamefish, which is found in variety of geographical regions of Indian subcontinent. The Rani fish is generally small in size and is commonly available for sale in India. A perch is generally around 30 cm (1 ft) / 1 lb (0.45 kg) or less in length, and any over 40 cm / 2 lb (0.91 kg) is considered a great catch.

9. Rita Rita

Rita Rita

Rita is a species of bagrid catfish that is found majorly in the freshwaters of the state of West Bengal. It is majorly fished commercially for human consumption. It is native to the countries of India, Pakistan, Mayanmmar, Nepla, Afganistan and Bangladesh. in its genus, it is considered to be a gaint, growing to a length of 150 cm. It is commercially fished for human consumption. It is a sluggish, bottom-dwelling catfish.

10. Tor Tor –  Mahseer

Mahseer Fish

Tor tor, commonly known as The Mahseer or The Golden Mahseer, are a type of popular game fish,  freshwater sport and food fish. Mahseer majorly present in Wayanad, Kali river and also in Sarda river and the Himalayan rivers. Out of the total of 47 types of Mahseer species in existence in the world, India provides a habitat to 15 of them!

11. Karimeen- Green Chromide

The Green Chromide Fish

The Karimeen fish is also well known as the Pearl Spots. It is a type of Green chromide, (one of the species of ‘Cichlid fish’found in the backwaters of the state of Kerala. The Green chromide is native to coastal areas of Indian Subcontinent, which lives in brackish water habitat types, for example: river deltas. It mostly grows to reach 20 centimetres (7.9 in) in length and the maximum length it may attain is twice of that.

12. Trout – Rainbow Trout

The Trout fish is a type of freshwater fish and are closely related to Salmon fish and Char fish and can be found in the Himalayan Region of India. The Himalayan rivers of Indian subcontinent are rich in German Brown and Rainbow Trout. Fishing in these Himalayan rivers is quite restricted and requires a special permit from the state government with a policy of ‘catch and release’. A normal adult rainbow trout generally has a weight of about 2–3 kg, while its maximum length is 120 cm total,  and maximum weight is 25.4 kg and 11 years of age.

Underwater photograph of Trout Fish.

Fishing Industry is ever blooming and thus very crucial for its contribution towards the economical development of our nation. India has one of the longest coastlines and some of the richest freshwater rivers in the world, thus hold a lot of scope for development in the fishery sector. We hope you liked our list to 12 Most popular freshwater fish of India Rivers!

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10 Largest Agriculture Producing States Of India

Agriculture is the very base of civilisation. Ever since we learnt to grow and hoard crops, nomadic nature of human beings came to an end and people could provide themselves with sustenance. Civilisations like Harappa and Mohenjodaro flourished because they had efficient agricultural techniques and ways of storing the harvest. These civilisations laid the foundations of agriculture in India.
Indian sub-continent is the second most populated country of the world with a population of 132.42 crores (2016). India’s economy is a developing mixed economy, still agriculture provides employment to a little over 50 percent of the entire population. This makes agriculture an indispensable asset to the country.

Cash crops like Cotton and Sugar are exported from India to other parts of the country, which contribute to the fast growing economy of the country. India is one of the leading producers of crops like wheat and rice and the Government provides subsidised rates on these crops so that they are affordable for the masses.
Agriculture in India is majorly monsoon dependent as a large part of the sub-continent does not have access to perennial sources of water. Therefore, if in a certain season, monsoon fails, it makes a huge impact on several crops throughout the country.
Northern parts of India are blessed with perennial rivers and therefore have proper means of irrigation along with improvised agricultural techniques, which makes states like Punjab the Granaries of the country. Whereas most of the other parts depend on seasonal rains and other irrigation methods to grow crops.

Here is a list of 10 Largest Agriculture Producing States Of India:

1. Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh is the largest agriculture producing state of India. It is the largest producer of wheat along with being the largest producer of sugarcane and food grains in the country. Uttar Pradesh is also the second largest producer of rice, bajra, barley and other pulses. Making it an essential agricultural state of the country, it is majorly because Uttar Pradesh is fed its rains by the South West monsoons, North East Monsoons and a little by the Western Disturbances.

Ganga Ghat, Uttar Pradesh

2. West Bengal

Busy street of West Bengal

West Bengal is the second largest state bringing agriculture in the country. It is the leading producer of:
West Bengal is also the second largest producer of Tea. This state has the most number of leading crop productions and has an extensive agricultural network. India is the second largest rice producing country of the world only next to China, which is the leading rice producing country of the world. Jute is also an important cash crop as it is exported to other countries as well and its production as to do with the moist climate of the state. The state also produces sesamum and tobacco.

3. Punjab

Paddy fields in Punjab

Punjab ranks third in agricultural production in the country. It produces crops like rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton and food grains. It is the third largest producer of not only wheat but also paddy. It is also the third largest producer of food grains. Crops like rice, cotton and sugarcane are produced in the Kharif season and because Punjab state is one of the best irrigated states of the country, it favours the growth of many agricultural crops. The lands are plain and extensive farming can be done on this land.

4. Haryana

Perennial Canal in Haryana

Neighbouring Punjab, Haryana is the fourth largest agricultural state of the country. The crops produced in this state are wheat, paddy, sunflower, and sugarcane etc. However, it is the second largest producer of sunflower in the country. Punjab and Haryana collectively are called the Granaries of the country. Like its neighbouring state, Haryana is also well irrigated and blooms the production of many food crops.

5. Madhya Pradesh

Wheat fields in Madhya Pradesh

This central Indian state ranks 5th amongst the largest agriculture producing states. This state produces several pluses like tur, urad, soyabean etc. In fact it is the largest producer of these pulses in the country. The state also produces grains like wheat and maize and is the second largest producer of both wheat and maize. Madhya Pradesh produces a lot of crops, which are majorly food crops and are for domestic use only.

6. Chhattisgarh

Use of fertilisers.

Chhattisgarh is called the Rice Bowl of Central India and it stands 6th amongst the largest agriculture producing sates of India. The main crops of this area are rice, maize and some other millets like oilseeds, and groundnuts etc. In Chhattisgarh, rice the staple crop i.e. rice is sown in about 77 percent of the entire area. Chhattisgarh is mainly dependent on rains for water as only 20 percent of the total area of the state is under irrigation.
There are three agro-climatic zones in Chhattisgarh and about 73 percent of the Chhattisgarh plains, 97 percent of the Bastar Plateau and 95 percent of the Northern Hills are rain fed.

7. Odisha

Paddy fields of Odisha

Odisha is a major agricultural state of India. The agriculture sector alone contributes to about 30% of the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP), more than 60% population of the state depends on agriculture which results in low per capita income in the farm sector. The farmed area is about 87.46 lakh hectares out of which only 18.79 lakh hectares are irrigated. Climate and soil play an essential role in its agricultural economy. A major part of the farm land depends on rains for feeding the crops. The rivers are also rain fed, and farmers depend on rains for nourishing crops like rice, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, rubber, tea, coffee etc.

8. Andhra Pradesh

Farms of Andhra Pradesh

Agriculture provides employment to nearly 62 percent of the total population of Andhra Pradesh. Rice is a major crop and staple food of Andhra, contributing to about 77 percent of the total food grains. Other important crops of the state are bajra, jowar, maize, small millets, ragi, pulses, tobacco, castor cotton and sugarcane.

9. Telangana

Seed Bowl of the country.

Agriculture plays an essential part in developing the economy of Telangana State and the better performance of this sector is needed for inclusive magnification.Total Geographical area of Telangana is 114.84 lakh hectares with a Gross Cropped Area of 62.88 lakh hectares in 2013-14.Telangana Government is making a strategy so that the State becomes theSeed Bowl” of the country. Telangana also produces crops like rice, mango, sugarcane and tobacco.

10. Karnataka

Tobacco farming in Karnataka.

In Karnataka, agriculture is the most essential part of its economy. The topographical features of the state of Karnataka such as the state’s soil, climate and relief etc. greatly support the agriculture in Karnataka. The Kharif crops in Karnataka are paddy (rice), maize, millets, moong dal (pulses), red chillies, groundnuts, cotton, sugarcane, rice, soyabean and turmeric. It is also called the Autumn harvest as they are farmed with the starting of the first rains in the month of July. The major Rabi crops of this state are barley, wheat, sesame, mustard and peas.