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10 Famous Olympics Medalists of India

If we talk about bringing honour to any country, well one word that expresses it all is Olympics! Ever since the beginning of the human race, sports have been important to scale the skills of an individual, they help not only to improve health but also to improve the overall personality. And Olympics is where it all takes place together.

The Olympics are an international sports event which are held every four years. These are the Summer and Winter Games (alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart). Indian athletes have won 28 medals, all at the Summer Games. There are numerous events in which over 200 participants take part. The International Olympics Committee was formed in 1894 and soon in 1896, first Olympics took place in Athens. Initially, there were only Summer Sports, then the Winter Olympics and the Paralympic Games. Olympic sports have gained recognition across the globe and this is evident from the fact that in 2016 Brazil Olympics more than 200 countries participated which is much more than the 14 countries that participated in Athens.

India first participated in the Olympics in 1900. The Indian Athletes have won a total of 28 medals so far, in which there are 9 Gold medals, 7 Silver medals and 12 Bronze medals. All these medals have been won at the Summer Games. India also started participating in Winter Olympics from 1964. There have been many great athletes who have contributed to these achievements in the Olympics, so we bring to you the list of 10 Most Popular Olympics Medalist in India who we are proud of:


1. Abhinav Bindra

Gold Medalist Abhinav Bindra

The first name who is undoubtedly the most popular name among most Olympic winners is Abhinav Bindra. He was the first-ever, individual sports player in India to win the gold medal. He is the former Wolrd Champion and also the Olympics Champion in the 10-meter air rifle event. He won this prestigious award in the Summer Olympics of Bejing, 2008. He was also the first to hold the title of World Champion and Olympics Gold Medalist both together.


2. Dhyan Chand

The Magician Dhyan Chand

Dhyanchand is a name that no one can leave when talking about great sports personalities. He was not just a hockey player but one of the greatest hockey players who ever lived. He was the captain of the Indian team and lead it to win gold in 1936 Berlin Olympics. He has aided in bringing three gold medals to India in 1928, 1932 and 1936. For his brilliant ball control and play style, he was also known as ‘The Magician’ and ‘The Wizard’.


3. Vijender Singh

Boxer Vijendra Singh

The next popular sports personality well known for his international achievements is Vijendra Singh. He has won many Professional Middleweight Boxing events and international titles, and some of them include the Bronze Medal at Bejing Olympics in 2008, Gold medal at the Guangzhou Asian Games in 2010 and many other. He is currently the WBO Asia Pacific Super Middleweight Champion and WBO Oriental Super Middleweight Champion.


4. P.V. Sindhu

P.V. Sindhu after winning semi-final at olympics

Leading the way for women sports, P.V. Sindhu is a popular sports personality who has contributed greatly towards encouraging women’s sports in India. She is a professional badminton player and has won about 20 international medals, which includes the Silver medal at 2016, Rio De Janeiro and of course a gold at the 2019 World Championships (thus becoming the first Indian to become the World Champion in Badminton ). She was just 17 when she gained international attention and got into the BWF World Rankings. Presently, she stands at 3rd position in this ranking for Women’s Singles.


5. Sushil Kumar

Silver medal winner sushil kumar

Sushil Kumar Solanki is an Indian Freestyle wrestler who has made the country proud by bringing home two Olympic medals. He is first Indian to have achieved this accomplishment. In 2008, Bejing Olympics he won his Bronze medal and later in 2012, London Olympics he won his Silver Medal in wrestling. Also, he won 3 gold medals in three different Commonwealth Games and also he won Gold in 2010, Moscow Wolrd Championship.


6. Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore

Portrait of Colonel Rajyavardhan Rathore

Colonel Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore is the next popular name on this list of Indian Olympic Medalists. He won the Silver medal at the 2004 Athens Olympics and over 25 International Medals at several championships in the Double Trap Event. He is not only well known for his achievements in sports but also for his various achievements in Defence Services. He was awarded the Sword of Honor for the best all-round Gentleman Cadet in IMA.


7. Saina Nehwal

Saina at 2010 common wealth games

The next name who is a very popular Indian Olympic medalist is Saina Nehwal. She is the former world no. 1 and has won over 23 international titles. She won the Bronze medal at the London Olympics in 2012. In 2015, she became the first-ever Indian female to become world no.1 and 2nd overall, after Prakash Padukone. Saina Nehwal has been many prestigious awards by the Indian Government such as Padma Vibhushan, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratan and also Arjuna Award.


8. Mary Kom

First interview of Mary Kom

Chungneijang Mary Kom Hmangte, popularly known as Mary Kom is the next name on our list. She is a professional boxer and gained popularity after becoming the first female Indian boxer at an international level. She has won the Bronze medal in 2012, London Olympics. She was won over 6 World Championships. Mary Kom also placed at no.1 rank in the AIBA World Women’s Ranking Light Category. She has won over 18 international titles.


9. Leander Paes

Leander Paes playing a doubles match

Another legendary sportsman on this list is none other than Leander Paes. He is considered to be one of the best doubles and mixed doubles tennis player ever. He has accomplished many achievements in tennis and that includes winning eight doubles and ten mixed doubles Grand Slam titles. He has won many prestigious Indian awards such as Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, Arjuna Award, Padma Shri, Padma Vibhushan and many more.


10. Sakshi Malik

2016 interview of Sakshi Malik

The final name we have on this list is of Sakshi Malik. Being an accomplished freestyle wrestler, she has contributed highly towards the encouragement of Women Wrestling. Sakshi Malik has won many national and international titles. She brought home the Bronze Medal from 2016, Rio De Janeiro Olympics. She is the first female to have achieved this accomplishment. She has participated in the Pro Wrestling League as well.

Above we have listed 10 Indian Medal Winners at the Olympic Games. These are people who made India and its people proud of their ultimate achievements.

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4 Popular Indian Astronauts that are World Renowned

The outer space is said to be the world of infinite possibilities and there are very few humans who have achieved the privilege of going out to that space, millions of miles away from earth. The experience of zero gravity and no air is beyond a lay man’s comprehension. Astronauts are those trained humans who are extensively trained by a human spaceflight program to perform various tasks such as commanding, piloting, or serving as a crew member of a spacecraft. They are also trained to handle themselves in zero gravity.

Not just anyone can become an astronaut. Astronauts are always held with the highest respect since they have worked very hard to achieve this. The first-ever man to go to outer space was Yuri Gagarin and the woman was Valentina Tereshkova. The first man to land on the moon and walk on it was Neil Armstrong. Indian has also accomplished greatly in space travel. 4 Indians and Indian origin became astronauts. India also has its own space research center called the Indian Space Research Organisation and they have launched many successful missions such as Mangalyaan or the Mars Orbital Project and many more.

To get to know about these popular Astronauts and their achievements, have formed the list of 4 Popular Indian Astronauts and their Achievements:


1. Rakesh Sharma

Before space travel, rakesh sharma

The first name on this list is of Rakesh Sharma. He is the first-ever Indian citizen who became an astronaut. He was born on 13 January 1949. Prior to becoming an astronaut, Rakesh Sharma joined the National Defence Academy. Then in 1970, he was commissioned as a pilot in the Indian Air Force. He is among the most respected alumnus of the NDA. On 20 September1982, Rakesh Sharma got selected to become an astronaut. This was done under the joint program between the Indian Space Research Organisation and the Soviet Intercosmos space program to send people into space.

Soviet rocket Soyuz T-11 that was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic on the second of April 1984 had Rakesh Sharma on board as a part of the crew. He was trained extensively for this program. The total time he spent was 7 days, 21 hours and 40 minutes. When he was aboard the Salyut 7, his main tasks included conduction of various scientific and technical studies. These studies had about forty-three experimental sessions. Sharma got retired at the post of Wing Commander and then ultimately retired from flying in 2001.


2. Kalpana Chawla

Portait of Kalpana Chawla

The name probably every man and woman know in this country is of Kalpana Chawla. She is not only an astronaut but also an inspiration for many. She was born on March 17, 1962. She was born in Karnal, India and to achieve her dreams of becoming an astronaut she moved to the USA. She received her Bachelor of Engineering degree in Aeronautical Engineering from Punjab Engineering College, India and then soon she moved to the USA, in 1982, where she received her Master’s and PhD. In 1991, Kalpana applied to join the NASA Astronaut Corps and then she joined it by the year 1995.

In 1996, she was selected to go on her first outer space mission. Her first space mission included a six-astronaut crew that flew the Space Shuttle Columbia flight STS-87 and for her second Mission, she was the part of the crew for STS-107. Though the crew got on space aboard very safely, they could not return back the same. The mission was already said to have many technical issues and that ultimately became the reason for the failure of the mission. All the seven-membered crew is said to have disintegrated when returning to earth. Thus marking, February 1, 2003, as an ill-fated day.


3. Sunita Williams

Portrait of Sunita Williams

Sunita Pandya Lyn Williams is popularly known as Sunita Williams is a very popular astronaut who has many accomplishments to her name. She is a descendant of Indo-Slovenian origins. She was born on born September 19, 1965. In 1987, she got her Bachelor’s degree in physical sciences from the United States Naval Academy. From there she began her carrier in United States Navy. In the navy, she started her training at the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School and thus became a pilot for the navy. Soon after that, she was selected for the astronaut program by NASA.

Throughout her carrier at NASA. She has been part of the space shuttle mission multiple times. She was launched to the outer space for the first time on December 9, 2006, on STS-116. In this expedition, she completed three spacewalks and did various other researches. She ran the first-ever marathon on the moon. She was brought back with the STS-117. NASA again selected her to join the expeditions 32 and 33. For expedition 33, she was chosen as the commander. She has successfully spent 321 days 17 hours 15 minutes in the outer space. She is among the best astronauts ever.


4. Ravish Malhotra

Cosmonaut Ravish Malhotra

Ravish Malhotra is a name very few know of. He is often called a forgotten hero and here in this list, we would like to share about this great man. Ravish Malhotra was born on 25 December 1943. He was born in Lahore, British India. He has his education at National Defence Academy and just like Rakesh Sharma, he later became a pilot at the Indian Air Force. His story is not very different from Rakesh Sharma and is the lesser-known companion of India’s first astronaut. On 20 September1982, Rakesh Sharma got selected to become an astronaut when he was a Wing Commander.

This was done under the joint program between the Indian Space Research Organisation and the Soviet Intercosmos space program to send people into space. He was then selected to be the back-up for Rakesh Sharma. Ravish went through just as much intense training as Rakesh and became a great cosmonaut. Though he did not go to space, he became a successful cosmonaut and contributed highly to make Rakesh the first successful Indian astronaut. He got retired from the IAF as Air Commodore. He has also worked as a test pilot.

Above is the list of four popular and courageous Indian Astronauts who left their deep daring imprints on the new generation.

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10 Biggest Movie Theatre (Multiplexes) In India

Films are considered one of the most influential entertainers of today’s life. Be it Hollywood or Bollywood, the film culture is part of our everyday routine. All celebrations whether it is Diwali, Eid or Christmas comes with some filmy entertainers around the corner and with it comes the culture of Multiplexes. These are the movie theatres that have multiple screens within a single complex. Many of the multiplexes are formed into an already existing building such as malls or any other independent building. The first-ever movie theatre was Edison’s Vitascope Theatre. And after that, the evolution of multiplexes began. In 1967, IMAX made its first multiplex.

With the rise of the Indian Cinema, there was a rise in the popularity of the movie theatres. Firstly, there were only single-screen theatres and soon after that came the multiplexes and even megaplexes. India saw the culture of multiplexes started in the mid-1980s. The first-ever multiplex built in India was by Parsi entrepreneur Jamshedji Framji Madan known as the Madan Theatre. It is still among the best multiplexes in India. If you would like to know more about the biggest movie theatres in India, we have compiled the following list of the 10 Biggest Movie Theatre (Multiplexes) In India, just for you!


1. PVR Director’s Cut, New Delhi

Inside the theatre of PVR

If we talk about the biggest and most luxurious multiplexes in India, the first name can be none other than the PVR Director’s Cut. It is present in the capital of India, Delhi. It was a production of PVR which was aimed to bring a very luxurious overall experience to the viewer. They have some of the most pleasurable sofa seats for each individual. Not only are the seats the main attraction but the facilities of cafes and bars add to the experience.


2. Prasad’s, Hyderabad

IMAX at Prasad's

The next name on this list is a big and famous name when we talk about the biggest multiplexes in India. It is none other than Prasad’s located in the city of Hyderabad. Initially, Prasad was formed by IMAX and it mostly supported the IMAX format films. It was, in fact, the first multiplex built by IMAX in India. But later, they stopped supporting the IMAX format and it slowly moved out. Prasad’s is said to have some of the best screens.


3. PVR Superplex, Noida

Luxury filled Superplex

If you would love a great experience of a weekend movie experience with one of the biggest screens in India, it is at PVR Superplex located in Noida. It is also a luxury packed multiplex and offers a world-class movie experience. But it is not just the luxury seats and lighting but also the wide range of screens such as IMAX, 4D etc. There is also a playhouse. It is present in the Logix Town Center shopping mall.


4. PVR Koramangala

IMAX screen, PVR

The PVR Koramangala is also a very popular name in the multiplex industry of India. It is among the biggest multiplexes in Bengaluru. It is not just big screens but also a huge space that makes it a very special experience. The seats and the services all say the word extravagance. When you book your tickets here, you are showered with great services such as pre-selected food and even have the choice to select your server yourself.


5. INOX Laserplex, Mumbai

Insignia scrren at INOX

The next name on this list of the biggest and best multiplexes in India is of the INOX Laserplex. It is said to be among the best movie theatres in Mumbai. If you want a very amazing movie experience and that too at an affordable price range, the INOX Laserplex is the best destination. The type of screen used by this multiplex is known as Insignia. These screens are among the best screens being used. The total screens are 5 which have a varying price range.


6. PVR Lulu Mall, Kerala

beautiful ambiance of PVR

The PVR of Lulu Mall is among the biggest and most high-end multiplexes in India. It is located in the city of Kochi, Kerala. PVR Lulu Mall is one of the largest multiplexes in India and also the Lulu mall is among the largest in India. It has more than 9 screens in total and the total capacity is near to 3000 viewers at a time. Even with all the luxury and space the price range of these screens is very much affordable. The mall and the multiplex come as overall package.


7. Ariesplex SL Cinemas

Beautiful SL cinemas

When in Kerala, if you don’t just want to settle with PVR Lulu Mall, the city also has another big multiplex called the Ariesplex SL Cinemas. It is also among the biggest multiplexes in India. The seats are good quality and comfortable and it has very large viewer capacity. The prices are relatively cheaper than the above names but the experience is not any less. The good quality of food and some beautiful amenities are the chief features of this multiplex.


8. Raj Mandir Cinema, Jaipur

Royal themed cinemas

The next famous name on this of the biggest movie theatres in India is of the Raj Mandir Cinemas, Jaipur. The name of Raj Mandir has come down in history as one of the best multiplexes in India even now. It was formed in 1976 and is one of the oldest movie theatres in India. Because of its grand size and historic importance, it is an important tourist destination in the Pink City of Jaipur. The theme of Raj Mandir Cinemas has always been very Royal.


9. PVR Plaza, Delhi

Popular cinema at CP, Plaza

The second last name we have on this list of the PVR Plaza, which is located in the capital city of India, Delhi. It is situated at a very prime location in Connaught Place and thus adds to the features of this theatre. The PVR Plaza has great ambiance and also the services are good. They have very good screens and the watching experience has been rated very high. The tickets to the PVR Plaza are also very affordable and in a wide range.


10. Mayajaal Multiplex

Luxurious 16-screen theatre

If we talk about the top 10 movie theatre in India, it can’t be without the Mayajaal Multiplex. This multiplex is among the biggest multiplexes in India and has about 16 screens in it. The multiplex has a beautiful reception and also offers the facility of a food court just nearby. It is one of the best weekend hits in Chennai. It has been in operation for more than 21 years and is among the most popular movie theatres in the country.

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12 Popular and Major Sea Ports in India

India has a very long coastline that measures 7,516.6 km in length. This coastline has all the kind of terrains that you would expect on a seashore. It includes Sandy Beaches, Rocky Coasts, Muddy Flats and Marshy Coasts. These terrains are spread across 9 states that are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and West Bengal. These states are home cities that have served as seaports for hundreds of years.

Specifically speaking seaports are the places located at seashores, which are a hub for transport and business by the means of seawater. Basically, India has 13 major seaports out of which 12 are owned by Government and 1 is corporate. These seaports have solidified India’s economy by means of sea transport. So here is a list of 12 Popular and Major Sea Ports in India.

1. Kandla Port

Kandla-Seaport-Gujarat

Kandla port is located in the state of Gujarat and it is on the Gulf of Kutch. It is one of the major seaports and has handled 72,225 million tonnes of cargo in the economic year 2008-2009 which was 13.6 percent of whole countries share. Kandla port is 430 nautical miles away from the port of Mumbai and was constructed in the 1950s for purpose of trade with the western world. Kandla port is known to import products like petroleum, chemicals, and iron from western countries and export grains, salt and textiles from India to the other nations of the world.

2.Nhava Sheva

Nhava Sheva-Mumbai

Nhava Sheva is located in the state of Maharashtra and it is built on the Arabian Sea. It is also known by the name of Jawahar Lal Nehru port. It has hosted 56.43 million tons of cargo in the economic year of 2010- 2011. It has ranked 31st in the top 100 Container Ports on the planet earth. Its construction was completed on 26 May 1989 and is known to import products like machinery, vegetable oils, and chemicals from western countries and exports textiles, carpets, boneless meat from India to the other nations of the world.

3.Mumbai Port

Mumbai-Seaport

As the name says it Mumbai port is located in Mumbai, Maharashtra. It has an area of 400 square kilometers (150 sq mi) and it hosted 62.82 million tonnes of cargo in the economic year 2017-2018. It is one of the largest and oldest seaports in India and was built in the 1870s. It has 63 berths which are managed by 7000 employees. Over the years it was in control of Maratha, Portuguese and British navy but known it is used for transport of Liquid chemicals, Crude and petroleum products.

4.Mormugao Port

Mormugao-Seaport-Goa

Mormugao port is located in Goa and it is the main seaport of the state. It is located in the south Goa and was commissioned in 1885 making it one of the oldest seaports in India. It has 11 berths which are operated by 2600 employees. Over the years it has become one of the most popular attractions of Goa for many filmmakers. In the economic year of 2011-2012, it transported 54.50 million metric tonnes of iron ore. 90 percent of it was exported to China.

5. Panambur Port

Panambur port- Mangalore

Panambur port is located in Mangalore in the state of Karnataka and is also known as New Mangaluru Port. It has transferred 36.5 million tonnes of cargo in the economic year of 2014-2015. It is was established in 1974 and is the seventh-largest port in India. It has a total of 17 berths for shipping of cargo. Panambur port is known to export manganese, granite stones, coffee, and cashew and it is known to import timber logs, LPG, and petroleum products. It is one of the most important ports on the Arabian sea.

6. Cochin Port

Cochin-Seaport-Cochin

As its name says Cochin port is located in Cochin which is the capital city of Kerala. In the economic year of 2015-2016, it transferred cargo approximately worth of ₹ 5,103.5 million which weighted near 22.10 million tonnes. It has a total of 13 berths for cargo transfer making it one of the largest ports built on the Arabian Sea. The thing that makes this port really special are facilities Cochin Shipyard, Kochi Refineries, and Kochi Marina. It is also one of the oldest ports and was built in the year 1928.

7. Port Blair

Port Blair-Andaman

Port Blair is another major port and it is the capital of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. There are total 23 small ports on Andaman and Nicobar Islands and it is the major one of them, which connects all of them with each other and all of them with the Indian mainland too. Port Blair isn’t oriented mainly for cargo business but it mainly used for travel and Andaman Island is a good tourist spot it is used a lot.

8. Tuticorin Port

Tuticorin-Seaport-Tamil-Nadu

Tuticorin Port is located in a city called as Thoothukudi, which is also known as Pearl City and is located in the state Tamil Nadu. It is a very large seaport with 13 berths and an area of 2150 acres (870.75 hectares). In the economic year of 2012 to 2013, it generated annual revenue of 3878.0 million INR. It was established in 1974 and from then it has become one of the main ports on the Bay of Bengal. Its major imports are rock phosphate, petroleum products, petroleum coke, and edible oils and major exports are sugar, granite, and limonite ore.

9. Chennai Port

Chennai-Seaport

Chennai is the capital city of Tamil Nadu and has the largest seaport of the state known as Chennai Port and also called as Madras Port. It is built on the Bay of Bengal and was established in 1881. It has an area of 407.51 ha (1,007.0 acres) and has 26 berths which are managed by more than 8000 employees. It generated annual revenue of ₹890.4 crore in the economic year of 2007 to 2008. It is one of the busiest ports in India and its major exports are Iron ore, leather, cotton textiles, and major imports are Wheat, raw cotton, machinery, iron & steel.

10. Vizag Port

Vizag-Seaport

Vizag port is also known as Vishakhapatnam port and is located in the state of Andhra Pradesh. It was established in 1933 and currently has 24 berths. In the economic year 2017 to 2018, it transferred 63.53 million tonnes. This port is located between Chennai and Kolkata and thus connects the two of them. Vishakhapatnam port is mostly known to handle iron ore, manganese ore, and steel products.

11. Paradip Port

Paradip-Seaport-Orissa

Paradip Port is located in the Jagatsinghpur district of the state of Orissa. It is located at a spot where the Mahanadi river meets the Bay of Bengal. It was opened in 1966 and has 20 berths which are managed by 700 employees. It hosted 102.01 million tons of cargo in the economic year 2017-2018 and it comes between Vishakhapatnam port and Kolkata port. Currently, it is managed by Paradip Port Trust (PPT), which is a government organization.

12. Haldia Port

Haldia-Seaport-West-Bengal

Haldia Port is located in Kolkata, which is the capital city of West Bengal. It has hosted 40.496 million tonnes of cargo in the economic year of 2017-2018 and this task was carried out with the help of 12 berths. It was established in the year 1967. It is built at a place where Haldi river meets the Hoogli river. This port is mainly known for the transfer of chemicals, petrochemicals, and oils.

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10 Oldest and Major Tribes in India

India is a country with a history dating back to 5000 years. During these years India has witnessed many geographical, cultural and political changes accompanied by many technological advancements too. But there is also a population of India that still lives in the forests. These are primitive tribes in India. These are the people who still believe in their very roots and have refused the way to the modern world (for most of the part).

These tribes have their homes all over India and have different cultural and spiritual beliefs. They are the people who gave an overview that how human life was a thousand years ago when all of this technology all around wasn’t even conceived. So’ here is a list of 10 Oldest and Major Tribes in India.

1.) Gond Tribe

Gond-Tribe

The Gond has most of their homes located in regions of Central India. Specifically speaking in Chhindwara district of the state of Madhya Pradesh. Furthermore, the Bastar district located in Chhattisgarh is also their home. Alongside these parts of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and Orissa are also some places where they can be found. In Madhya Pradesh, Kanha and Bandhavgarh and Gondi forests are the home for Gonds. The Gond tribes basically are known to speak various languages like Telugu, Hindi, and some other Dravidian languages. Kodo or Kutki are two dishes that are popular among Gonds. Furthermore, most of the Gonds are meat consumers.

2.) Bhil Tribe

Bhil Tribe

Bhils are mostly spotted in the state of Rajasthan. This community has most of their homes located in the Aravali Ranges in Udaipur and some regions of Dungarpur and Banswara. Furthermore, the Bhil tribes are also found in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Tripura. Bhils basically follow the typical Rajasthani culture that includes Ghoomar dance, Than Gair, which is a traditional drama and Baneshwar Fair held in the month of January or February. Bhils have their very own language which is known as Bhilli, which is an Indo-Aryan language. Alongside all of these Bhil tribes have a tremendous number of mansions in the history books too.

3.) Santhal Tribe

Santhal Tribe

The Santhal tribe is one of the major tribes in the state of West Bengal. Specifically speaking their homes are located in the districts of Bankura and Purulia. Some other regions where the can be spotted are parts of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Assam. The Santhals mostly make their living on agriculture and livestock. Alongside these, they are also known for the art of hunting. They are also famous for the Santhali dance and their music. Alongside it, their festivals like Karam, Maghe, Asaria, Disum Sendra, and Namah also attracts a lot of tourists too.

4.) Great Andamanese Tribe

Andamanese-Tribe

As the name says Great Andamanese Tribe live in Andaman islands. This tribe has the Onge, Jarawa, Jangil, and Sentinelese people, these are the native people of Andaman island. But today most of them are on edge of extinction and some of them have already died out. For instance, Boa, who were speakers of Khora and Bo languages have been instinct since 2010. The current population of the Great Andamanese Tribes is heavily dependent on the various campaign by Indian organizations. It is very hard to find a difference between all of these tribes due to their similar dresses and complexion.

5.) Khasi Tribe

Khasi Tribe

Khasi tribe is located in the mountains of Meghalaya. Who are known for their music, and instruments like drums, guitars, flutes, and wooden pipes. Khasi people are heavily popular among tourists due to this reason. The Khasi people are mostly found in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya. Alongside Khasi hills, they are also spotted in parts of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, and even West Bengal. Khasi people are known to speak an Austro- Asiatic language and are known for their traditional dresses, which are known as Jainsem and Jymphong for men and woman respectively.

6.) Garo Tribe

Garo-Tribe

Alongside the Khasi tribe, Meghalaya is also home to the Garo Tribe, which are known for their distinct lifestyles. They can also be spotted in the areas of Bangladesh and regions of West Bengal, Assam, and Nagaland. What makes Garo tribes different from the other tribes of Meghalaya is their appearance. Garo women are known to wear varieties of traditional ornaments and men wear turbans with feathers stuck behind them. The Garo people are known for their architectural achievements like Nokmong, Nokpante, Jamsireng, and Jamaal, which are abstracts that you can capture with your camera.

7.) Angami Tribe

Angami-Tribe

Angami is basically a Naga tribe that is known for its Hornbill Festival. They are found in the state of North East India, Nagaland. They are one of the major tribes of Nagaland and have a large population all around Kohima. Alongside the Hornbill Festival, the thing that attracts the tourist the most is Angami Naga’s fine bamboo work, cane furniture, beds, shawls, and powerful machetes. The Angami people speak a language called as the Angami Language which can be identified with various names such as Gnamei, Ngami, Tsoghami, and Monr. Furthermore, they are also known for their dressing style which is white Mhoushu and black Lohe for men and for women a Mechala along with various ornaments like Beads, pendants, bangles, and bracelets. Angami Nagas are meat eaters and are known for various pork dishes.

8.) Munda Tribe

Munda-Tribe

Mundas are mostly found in the Chota Nagpur Plateau which is located in the dense forests of Jharkhand. They can also be spotted in the states of West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Odisha which are also homes to the Munda Tribes. Munda tribes live a very and basic lifestyle and they follow the Sarna religion and worship a God called Singbonga. They are also famous for a dance form called Nupur and their festivals that attracts the tourist are Mage, Phagu, Karam, and Sarhul. Munda tribes are known to speak a language called as Mundari.

9.) Bhutia Tribe

Bhutia-Tribe

Bhutia tribe is the major tribe living in the Himalayan mountains of Sikkim. The Bhutias are very popular for their traditional grandeur, art, and cuisine. Their cuisine is known for a unique recipe of momo, meat dumplings, and thupka, which are all very delicious and popular dishes all over India. Bhutia tribe are very popular among tourists for their Losar and Loosong festivals and dance, music, and religion. Bhutias are basically meat eaters and have some very popular meat dishes.

10.) Chenchu Tribe

Chenchu-Tribe

The Chenchu tribes are people of Andhra Pradesh and are mostly spotted in the middle of the forest of Nallamala Hills. They are mostly found in the districts known as Mahboobnagar, Nalgonda, Prakasam, Guntur, and Kurnool. Chenchu lives a very hard life and they are largely dependent on hunting and trading of various jungle products like roots, fruits, mahua flower, honey, gum, tamarind and green leaves. Chechu tribes are known to speak a language with a Telegu accent and these people are skilled in various forms of arts and crafts. Chenchu performs various rituals that attract a lot of tourists.

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10 Largest Forests in India

Decades after becoming a world of forest degradation, India stands tall at a growth rate of 0.7% in its forest cover; because of this India has shown its prowess in the list of top 10 nations in the world with the largest forest cover! As of 2015, India had a forest cover of over 7,06,800 sq km which is almost 24% of the total size of the nation! These mystical and alluring forests are a true spectacle of the wonders of nature and are also home to some of the most exquisite and endangered species of birds and wildlife. A Bliss!

Indian Forests are either protected or reserved. Thus, aiming to save the forest lands. Tribal Communities are major contributors to preserving these protected forests. The Forestry in India is the among the most significant contributors in the rural industry and also it is an important environmental resource. But it is not that most of these forests help in wood as a resource but also a lot of non-wood resources are cultivated and produced such as latex, gums, essentials oils, medicinal plants and much more. Though forests are very important for the India economy they are also a great rejuvenation spot. With the increase in the hectic lifestyle of people, forests provide as great recreational spots. Many adventurers thrive in the deep forests of India to find calm and peace. India has some of the most beautiful forests in the world. So, if you are looking for some of the best forests in India, we have compiled the list of 10 Largest Forests in India :


1. Gir Forest, Gujarat

lions at gir forest

The first name and one of the largest forest areas in India are of the Gir Forests in the state of Gujarat. These forests are the part of the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests. The Gir Forests have some part of them are the Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary. Though these forests are mostly arid, they are home to a wide range of flora and fauna. These forests are also home to the rare and endangered Asiatic Lions.


2. Sundarban Forests, West Bengal

Rainforests of Sundarbans

If you want to find something exotic and want a once in a lifetime kind of experience the Sundarban Forests are just the place for you. These forests are present in the state of West Bengal Sundarbans. These are a type of mangrove forest and they cover an area of about 10,000 km2 (3,900 sq mi). The most unique feature of these forests is the wide range of wildlife which goes from the magnificent White Tigers and Bengals to the rarest Birds and much more.


3. Khasi Hills, Meghalaya

Beautiful trek of Khasi Hills

The beauty of the Khasi Hills lies in the fact that these forests can be visited in any time of the year and would still leave you breathless by their picturesque views. These forests are present in Meghalaya and are a type of sub-tropical forests. These forests also receive the highest rainfall in the world and the highest record is of Cherrapunji in East Khasi hills of Meghalaya. These are a number of activities for tourists to engage and thrive in.


4. Kaziranga Forest, Assam

Rhinos of Kaziranga Forest

The next name on this list of the most popular and best forests in India is of the Kaziranga Forest. It is a dense tropical moist broadleaf forest with marshland. These forests are present in the state of Assam and have a major part of them as the Kaziranga National Park. It is among the best forests in the world because of the efforts of the government and people to protect these lands and also the wildlife such as the Great One-Horned Rhinoceros.


5. Arunachal Pradesh Forest

Beautiful forests of Arunachal Pradesh

If you want to experience the diversity and beauty of forests at its best the Arunachal Pradesh Forests are the best. These are mainly Tropical and Sub-tropical and as you walk through these forests you will find the Temperate forest, Pine forests, and Subalpine forest. Arunachal Pradesh Forest has a variety of flora and fauna which include about 5000 species of plants, 500 different birds, 85 terrestrial mammals and a wide number of insects, butterflies, and reptiles.


6. Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu

elephants at the biosphere reserve

The next beautiful and one of the most famous forests in India are of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in the state of Tamil Nadu. The blue mountain and the tropical forest attract nature lovers from all over the world. The type forests here are tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests. Some of the oldest tribal groups live here. Also, these forests are home to lion-tailed macaque and Nilgiri Tahr.


7. Vandalur Forest Reserve

Birds at Vandalur forests

The next name on this list of most popular forests in India is of the Vandalur Reserve Forest. These forests are located in the suburb of Vandalur, near the centre of Chennai. If you want to plan a holiday out of the mainstream things, this is one of the best options. The views and the journey is a feast for any nature lover. Also, one of the major attractions is the Madras Zoo which was included in this reserves a popular tourist attraction.


8. Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand

Tigers of Jim Corbett Forests

The next popular Indian forest is the famous Jim Corbett National Park located in the state of Uttarakhand. The park has 73% forest cover and 10% grassland. The forests are dense moist deciduous forests and thus are home to a wide spectrum of wildlife. Whether you want to see the Royal Bengal Tiger or the beautiful peacocks or the rare Deers, you get a glimpse of it all here in the forests’ of Jim Corbett National Park.


9. Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur

floating forest

The second last name on this list of the most popular forests in India is the forest of Keibul Lamjao National Park. It is located in the state of Manipur. It is famous as the world’s one and only floating park. The park is surrounded by water and fish farms. These forests were turned into a national park to help with the conservation of the last of the brow-antlered deer in the world. The Keibul Lamjao forms an important part of the Loktak Lake.


10. Kanha National Park, Madhya Pradesh

Bengal tigers at Kanha forest

The last and probably one of the most world-renowned forests of India is the Kanha National Park. These forests are present in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. These forests are the inspiration behind Rudyard Kipling’s famous “The Jungle Book“. The forests on the highland are tropical moist, dry deciduous type and of a completely distinct nature from bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) on slopes.

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Top 12 Famous Indian Poets (Hindi and English)

Poetry, since time immemorial, has been a specialty of Indian people. India has produced so many awe-inspiring poets that have told us about our history in form of poems, stories, songs and so on. Their poetry is the anchor that has made us stick to our roots and provided not only with the knowledge of our country and our ancestors but also have had a soul-nourishing effect on the majority population of the country. Indian literature was written in many languages since India is a greatly diversified nation ranging from languages like Hindi, Awadhi, and Sanskrit to Urdu, Persian etc. Many foreign travelers have come and gone to India and have written praises about its prosperity, peacefulness, and administration.

India, as a country has had a really contrasting history. From being the “The Golden Sparrow” of the world to being colonized by the British for 200 years. Thus, it comes as no surprise that the poetry that drew out of the hearts of these Indian poets is as beautiful as it could get. From poets writing songs about their valiant Kings to poets writing about oppression by the British and bravery of the people of India.

Here is a list of Top 12 Famous Indian Poets of Hindi and English:


1. Kalidasa

Mahakavi

Kalidasa lived in the 4th-5th century CE and wrote in Sanskrit language and has widely been accepted as the country’s greatest poet. He has written a number of works, which include poems as well as plays. The most famous one being: Abhigyan Shakuntalam that describes the love story of King Dushyant and Shakuntala. He has also written other famous works like Raghuvansam and Meghadatta.
Kalidasa has also written epic poems like Kumarsambhava which describes the birth of Subramanya.


2. Chand Bardai

Prithviraj Raso

Chand Bardai was born on 30th September 1149 in Rajasthan and has been popularly known for writing the famous epic poem Prithviraj Raso. Prithviraj Raso was written in Brajbhasha and describes the life of King Prithviraj Chauhan. It is an incredibly long poem and comprises of an upward of 10,000 stanzas.
Prithviraj Chauhan was a valiant King who defeated Mohammad Ghazni in the First Battle of Terrain, but let him go the first time. When Mohammad Ghazni came the second time he defeated Prithviraj and this poem describes that.


3. Rabindranath Tagore

Nobel Prize

Rabindranath Tagore was born on 7th May 1861 in the Province of Bengal and was not only a poet, but also a polymath, musician, and an artist. In 1913, Rabindranath Tagore became the first Non-European to win a Nobel Prize. Rabindranath Tagore was popularly known as “The Bard of Bengal.” His writing style was exceptionally mercurial but it remained vastly unknown outside the Province of Bengal.
His most famous works include Gitanjali, The Postmaster, Chokher Bali, The Postmaster, Gora, Kabuliwala, Sadhana, Ghare Baire, Nastanirh (The Broken Nest) etc.


4. Harivansh Rai Bachchan

Madhushala

Harivansh Rai Bachchan was born on 27th November 1907 in Allahabad. He is known as one of the most famous modern poets of India. Students throughout the country have read his poems as a part of their curriculum. He also received The Padma Bhushan in 1986 for his immense contribution to Hindi literature. He was a prolific writer and his writing style was very motivational and simple. He could bring about the complexities of life and motivate people by using a very minimalistic and simple approach.
Some of his famous works include Madhushala, Agnipath, Ruke Na Tu, Teer Par Kaise Rukoon.


5. Maithili Sharan Gupt

Arjun ki pratigya

Maithili Sharan Gupt was born on 3rd August 1866 in Chirgaon. He was one of the finest Indian poets of ‘Khari Boli’ or the Plain Dialect. In a time when most of the poets favored the use of Brajbhasha dialect, Maithili Sharan Gupt wrote in Khari Boli and was amazingly successful at that too. He is also one of the most sought-after modern Indian poets and students throughout the country read his works as a part of their curriculum.
Some of his most famous works include Nahush Ka Patan, Dono Or Prem Palta hai, Arjun ki Pratigya.


6. Muhammad Iqbal

Modern hindi poet

Muhammad Iqbal was born on 9th November 1877 in Sialkot District of Punjab Province during British India. Many literary critics and media outlooks called him the ”Poet of the East”. His family was descended from the Kashmiri Pandit Brahmin line and Iqbal grew up in fairly humble surroundings. He loved both of his parents and, when his mother died in 1914 he wrote a short elegy in her honor.
Sir Muhammed Iqbal died on the 21st April 1938 at the age of 60. Some of Muhammad Iqbal’s famous poems are Sympathy, I Desire, Ahead of the Stars, The Crescent.


7. Mirza Ghalib

Court of Bahadur Shah Zafar II

Mirza Ghalib was the pen name of Mirza Asadullah Ghalib. He was born on 27th December 1797. He was majorly an Urdu and Persian language poet. He is considered to be one of the greatest poets of all times. Not only in the Indian Sub Continent but throughout the world. Mirza Ghalib has written various short poems that became very famous during that time.
During the reign of Bahadur Shah Zafar II, Mirza Ghalib was given the title of ‘Dabir-ul-Mulk‘ and he was also bestowed upon with an additional title of ‘Najm-ul-Daulah


8. Kabir

Kabirdas

Kabir lived through the 15th Century CE and was a mystical or Sufi poet. He wrote many short poems also known as ‘Kabir Ke Dohe‘.  He mostly portrayed a side of the connection between the human and the divine. He was an extremely religious man and portrayed that in his writings. His writings became extremely popular and have since then gained even more popularity.
Each of his writings had a mystical connection to the divinity and also had a moral. His poems could be compared to moral lessons with absolute finesse in poetry.


9. Meerabai

Lord Krishna

Meerabai was born in the year 1498 in Kurki District, Pali in Rajasthan. She belonged to the Royal Family of Rajasthan. Her family disapproved of her singing in public since she belonged to the Royal Family, so she left her family and went on to sing praises of her Lord, Krishna and also called herself as her wife. She wrote a number of poems and songs, singing the praises of Lord Krishna and went on to attain Moksha or ‘Nirvana’ through Bhakti Yoga.
She was widely seen as a prominent figure during the Bhakti movement in the late 1600s.
One of her most famous songs was ‘Payo Ji Maine Ram Ratan Dhan’, written in the local Rajasthani dialect.


10.Ruskin Bond

Kasauli

Ruskin Bond was born on 19th May 1934 in Kasauli, which presently lives in Shimla. He was awarded the Sahitya Academy Award in 1992 for his contribution to literature in India. He has written hundreds of short stories and poems. He wrote his first short story in 1951 which was named “Untouchable.”
He has written several horror stories describing the hauntings of Shimla and the adjacent areas. His short stories are a treat to read. His Autobiography was published in the year 2017 which was titled, “Lone Fox Dancing.”
Some of his most famous works are Himalayan Tales, Indian Ghost Stories, A Tiger in The House etc.


11.Rudyard Kipling

Bombay Born

Rudyard Kipling was born on 30th December 1865 in Bombay Presidency of British India. Although he was not an Indian national, he was born here and spent most of his life in India. He was inspired by the Indian way of living. This inspired him to write books like “The Jungle Book”. In 1907, at the age of 42, he was also awarded the Nobel prize for literature which made him the first English Literature writer to win a Nobel prize.
He was also offered Knighthood on several occasions, which he respectfully declined.
Some of his most famous works are: The Jungle Book, If, Rikki Tikki Tavi.


12.Nissim Ezekiel

Jewish Indian

Nissim Ezekiel was born on 16th December 1924 in Bombay Presidency of British India. He was awarded the Sahitya Academy Award in 1983 for his poetry collection, Latter Day Psalms.
Ezekiel enriched and established Indian English language poetry through his modernist innovations and techniques, which enlarged Indian English literature, moving it beyond purely spiritual and Orientalist themes, to include a wider range of concerns and interests, including mundane familial events. Some of his famous works are Time to Change, Sixty Poems, The Third etc.

List of Famous Indian Poets

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Top 12 Highest and Tallest Waterfalls in India

Isn’t it beautiful to see how beautiful the works of mother nature are? India is very gifted with such sensational artworks of nature, and surely Waterfalls are one of its best spectacles. It is amazing how Waterfalls are formed by water rushing down from a steep edge and creates beautiful showers. The water flows from a land on a higher altitude and falls down on lower altitude land from where it will continue are either a lake or river.

India has a great range of waterfalls which are very magnificent and beautiful. These are among the most beautiful and tallest waterfalls in the world. Waterfalls are a great source of tourism and are often serve as the best attraction. Waterfalls are also known as cascades. The thrill-seekers from around the globe visit these cascades for experiencing adventures of climbing and bathing in these wondrous waters.

It is a most breathtaking sight to look at a waterfall unfurling all of its might from a place of calm origin into a river or a rivulet. As if breathing life into a new place. Nature has some of the most beautiful ways of teaching us about life and selflessness.

Here are the Top 12 Highest and Tallest Waterfalls in India:


1.Kunchikal Falls

Beautiful Kunchikal Falls

The first name on this list is of the Kunchikal Falls. These are the tallest waterfalls in India. They have a height of 455 metres (1,493 ft). They are present in the Shimoga district of the state of Karnataka. They are a cascade type of waterfall and have a multi-tiered structure. The falls are formed by the Varahi river. It is also the second tallest waterfall in Asia.


2. Barehipani Falls

tiered Barehipani Falls

The second tallest waterfall in India is the Barehipani Falls. These are among the most beautiful waterfalls in India. They have a height of 399 metres (1,309 ft). These falls are located in the Simlipal National Park which is present in the Mayurbhanj district of the state of Odisha. The main feature of this waterfall is that it is two-tiered and among the highest falls in Asia.


3.Nohkalikai Falls

 Nohkalikai falls in Meghalaya

The Nohkalikai Falls are not only among the tallest Indian waterfalls but also it is the tallest plunge type waterfall in India. It has a total fall span of 340 metres (1,120 ft). This waterfall is located in the Cherrapunji district of the state of Meghalaya. These are formed by the rainwater deposited at the summit of a short plateau. Thus, the strength of this waterfall decreases from December to February.


4. Nohsngithiang Falls

Nohsngithiang Waterfalls in Meghalaya

The Nohsngithiang Falls is popularly known as the Seven Sisters Waterfalls. It is known by this name because of the seven-segmented type of waterfall that it forms. This waterfall is located in the East Khasi Hills district, Mawsmai in the state of Meghalaya. The waterfall has a total height of 315 metres (1,033 ft), which makes it the fourth tallest waterfall in India.


5. Dudhsagar Falls

dudhsagar waterfalls in goa

The next name on our list of tallest waterfalls in India is of the Dudhsagar Falls. The literal meaning of Dudhsagar translates to Sea of Milk. The falls got its name because of its rich milky appearance. These falls are a four-tiered type of waterfall. They are located 60km away from Panaji in Goa. These waterfalls have a total height of 310 metres (1,020 ft). The source of water for the waterfall is Mandovi River.


6. Langshiang Falls

langshiang-falls in meghalaya

The Langshiang Falls is the next tallest waterfalls in India, presently. They have a total height of 1,106 ft. These falls are said to increase their depth with the increase in the water and can reach a height of 337 metres sometimes. These falls are located near the village of Sangriang which is in the West Khasi Hills District in the state of Meghalaya. The source of water is the Kynshi River.


7.Kynrem Falls

beautiful kynrem falls

The next waterfall we have on this list is the Kynrem Falls. The Kynrem Falls are the 7th tallest waterfalls in India and are located at about 12km from Cherrapunji in the state of Meghalaya. They have a total fall span of 305 metres (1,001 ft). These Kynrem falls are located inside the national park of Thangkharang Park. These are also a type of cascade forming multi-tiered waterfall.


8. Meenmutty Falls

Meenmutty falls in Kerala

The Meenmutty Falls are among the most beautiful waterfalls in India and these are the tallest waterfalls present in the State of Kerala in the Wayanad District. These are a triple-tiered type of waterfalls and have a total fall span of 300 metres (980 ft). Many thrill seekers plan their trek to this waterfall through Wayanad-Ooty road, but it gets very risky during rainy season.


9. Thalaiyar Falls

single streamed Thalaiyar Falls

The next name among the highest and tallest waterfalls in India is of the Thalaiyar Falls. These are located in the Theni District of the state of Tamil Nadu. These waterfalls have a total height of 297 metres (974 ft). It has an elevation of 820 metres (2,690 ft). The source of water for the Thalaiyar Falls is the Manjalar River. These are also known as Rat Tail Falls.


10. Barkana Falls

barkana falls in shimoga

The Barkana Falls are the tenth tallest waterfalls in India. They have a fall span of 259 metres (850 ft). These waterfalls are formed by the waters of the Seetha River which gets collected at the summit. These Barkana Falls are located near Agumbe, near the district of Shimoga in the state of Karnataka. This is a tiered type of waterfall and is filled with water only during the rainy season.


11. Jog Falls

beautiful Jog Waterfalls

The second last name on the list of the highest waterfalls in India is of the Jog Falls. The Jog Falls are also among the most beautiful and spectacular waterfalls in India. These waterfalls are present in the Shimoga District in the state of Karnataka. These are a type of segmented waterfalls and it becomes a plunge waterfall depending on the season. They have a total height of 253 metres (830 ft).


12. Khandadhar Falls

tiered khandadhar falls

Then lastly we have the 12th most beautiful and tallest waterfall in India, the Khandadhar Falls. These falls are located in the district of Sundagarh in the state of Odisha. It is a horsetail type of waterfall. The total height of the Khandadhar Falls is 244 metres (801 ft). Since the fall looks like a Sword (‘Khanda‘) and is a Fall (‘Dhara‘), it was named as Khandadhar.

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Best 12 Online Affiliate Marketing Programs in India

The buzz of Online Affiliate Marketing has come to India and is spreading really fast. If you know what Online Affiliate Marketing is, you would know how powerful its growth is, and if you don’t, do not worry! We are here to tell you all about it and also the best programs available for online affiliate marketing for you to get started on.

What are Online Affiliate Marketing and its programs? and why is it gaining so much popularity? Affiliate Marketing is a method of marketing in which you will refer a certain product (by some other seller) to anyone you may or may not know, and if they that product through your referral, you get the commission. All the major and many minor online shopping companies offer such affiliate programs so that they can get promoted and also you can easily earn some cash. Now, you may realise why it is getting so popular as the investment is least to zero but you still get good returns. In India, the scope of such programs is growing rapidly because of the huge population and also because India is the biggest hub for investors and traders. Also to understand this Affiliate Marketing, you may think of it as an alternative to Google Adsense. Though many of these affiliate program companies seek top bloggers, anyone can join these programs. There are direct affiliate sites of the companies and you can sign up on them.

So now if you interested in some Online Affiliate Marketing and want to join some programs, we have a whole list for you, here is the compilation of Best 12 Online Affiliate Marketing Programs in India:


1. Flipkart.com

Affiliate page of Flipkart

https://affiliate.flipkart.com

Flipkart is hands down one of the most popular shopping websites in India today and thus joining an affiliate program at the Flipkart Affiliate is the first on our list. You can earn easy money from Flipkart Affiliate by easily signing up. All you will need to do is to pull in traffic on your affiliate link which will redirect to Flipkart. You can use any of your sites, such as website, mobile site, mobile apps which will move the traffic to Flipkart and earn up to 15% commissions.

By offering a wide range of products, precise tracking, great fee and on-time payouts, the Flipkart affiliate has become one of the best online affiliate marketing programs in India. Also, it’s absolutely free!


2. Amazon.com

Affiliate page of Amazon

The next name on this list is none other than the international online shopping giant Amazon.com. The affiliate program offered by Amazon is known as Amazon Associates. It is already well-known for providing millions of products thus the popularity of Amazon Associates is increasing greatly. The associates or the affiliates can get very good fees which can get up to 12%. Ever since its launch in India, the growth of Amazon Associates has only increased.

Another great feature of Amazon’s affiliate program is that you can earn the marketing fees from all the qualifying sales and not just the ones that have been marketed.


3. eBay.com

Affiliate page of eBay

https://pages.ebay.in/affiliates/affiliate-offers.html

The third name is of eBay India. The eBay India’s affiliate program is very fast and efficient. It helps you to start earning commissions in a very fast and easy way. This affiliate program also gives good commissions which are up to 12%. It is very simple as you just need to provide good marketing to the site and then you will receive your share of fees on every sale made because of your promotion. The eBay Affiliate is absolutely free to join.

Anyone can join the eBay Affiliate whether it is a person or a complete organisation. The payment is really good and also quicker than most programs.


4. GoDaddy.com

Affiliate page of Godaddy

The GoDaddy Affiliate by the GoDaddy is the next on this list of best Indian Online Affiliate Programs. It is also a program that doesn’t require you to pay any fees and is also very simple to put up on your website or app. What you will need to do is to place the links of the GoDaddy website on either the banner of your site or app, or you can add a text type anywhere you wish to. It provides up to 10% commission.

Since there are no cost or minimum purchase rule or anything, you have nothing to lose and a good payout to again. The percentage of your commission will be decided after a certain regularity in your marketing.


5. Snapdeal.com

snapdeal affiliate page

Another popular name in the online affiliate marketing in India is of Snapdeal.com. Snapdeal Affiliate if a great program that has good commission values. It has a very basic working mechanism just like most of the other programs, that you need to sign up at the affiliate site of Snapdeal, which is free of cost then you start promoting it either via links of by the use of affiliate links on your website or mobile site or app.

Snapdeal Affiliate offers up to 10% commission rates to the affiliates on every purchase made by their referral, this can be also up to 400 rupees.


6. TripAdvisor.com

affiliate page of TripAdvisor

The TripAdvisor affiliate is a great option for those websites and bloggers who are into travelling and have a travel based background because this will help the visitor to select your TripAdvisor suggestion. TripAdvisor affiliate is free to use and lets you earn great commissions. Since it consists of a community of trustworthy travellers from across the globe, the credibility of the link gets increased by a lot of value.

Through the TripAdvisor Affiliate, you can get very high commission rate which goes as high as 50% of the total. Thus, making a great shot to try.


7. BigRock.in

Affiliate page of BigRock

BigRock is probably one of the biggest names in online affiliate marketing today. It’s a super easy three-way process which is just signing up, referring to customers and earning commissions. If you are a web designer or blogger who is interested in web hosting, then BigRock Affiliate is for you. Since BigRock offers high-value domain registration, they also give great commission which can go as high as 45-50%.

Just set up the BigRock Affiliate link on your site and start selling the products and services by BigRock, soon enough you will see how fast you start earning.


8. VCommission.com

Affiliate page of vcommissions

The next name on our list of best online affiliate programs in India is the vCommission. It is one of India’s Affiliate Network which helps in delivering better performance to the many popular India Brands by adding affiliates to itself. That is, vcommission is a site for promotion which itself uses affiliates for marketing some top brands in India. It offers good fees but you can take a payout only at $100 and not before that, which may take some time.

The chief features of vcommission are its specialized branding, monetization, performance marketing etc.


9. MakeMyTrip.com

affiliate page of makemytrip

The MakeMyTrip Affiliate is a great method of increasing your earnings from your website or blog if you have a travel-centric site. Since most of the customers will be the ones interested in a trip, adding MakeMyTrip affiliate can surely add to your earning. Also, MakeMyTrip Affiliate offers great commission rates. The commissions are even higher if the customer has opted for flights and other costly amenities.

The prime benefits of this affiliate program are that you get great commission and the competition is comparatively very less, thus a great deal.


10. Hostgator.com

affiliate page of hostgator

Hostgator is well-known in the field of web hosting services and thus has a good customer base which is very broad and reachable. Thus, the affiliate programs by the Hostgator Affiliate holds high value. Moreover, if you are a website or blogger which is already dealing with or want to get into web designing or hosting, you can add the Hostgator affiliate too your site.

It is also free of cost and is great for VPS hosting, web hosting, web designing and servers based websites and blogs in India.

11. Shaadi.com

The second last name on this list of best online affiliate marketing programs in India is of Shaadi.com. Being one of the world’s biggest matrimonial online website, shaadi.com is a great program for affiliates. It has the great features of consistent profits, easy payouts, real-time reports, multiple banners ads, easy joining and much more. Shaadi.com joining the Indian market in 1996 and thus has ever grown.

Shaadi.com also over very high commission rates which can go to 75% of the Revenue Share. You just need to add the banner/text links to your website.


12. Monster.com

affiliate program of Monster

Lastly, we have the affiliate program for online marketing by Monster Affiliate. The monster website is a job searching type of site which helps the employers post their vacancies and also people looking for jobs can search for them. Since monster.com is already helping for users to find jobs, their affiliate program helps them to add to their earning. The monster affiliate also provides an easy and good commission of up to 17%.

All that needs to be done is some planning by the affiliate and then start marketing. The commission to an affiliate is provided very fast and most just after the sale from the affiliates’ link.

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10 Most Popular Fighter Jet Plane (Aircraft) in the Indian Air Force

The Indian Air Force officially came to effect on the 8th of October, 1932 with a strength of 6 Royal Air Force trained officers and 19 ‘Hawai Sepoys’ which literally translates to Air Soldiers. Since then, the Indian Air Force has become the world’s fourth-largest air force in terms of assets. The Air Force Academy where the ranks are trained is located in Dundigal in the state of Telangana. The motto of the Indian Air Force is: ” Touch the Sky with Glory”. The rank of the supreme commander of the IAF is held by the President of India. There is approximately 1,40,000 active personnel in the Indian Air Force presently. The head of the Indian Air Force is the Chief of the Air Staff or The Air Chief Marshall. Air Chief Marshall Birender Singh Dhanoa is the present head of the Indian Air Force.

Indian Air Force has various kinds of aircraft ranging from Helicopters to Transport Aircrafts to cutting-edge, top of the line Fighter Planes. The Air Commands are strategically located throughout the country and different types of aircraft are distributed there, as per the requirement of the area. In this article, we are going to discuss The 10 Most Popular Fighter Planes and Aircraft in the Indian Air Force.


1. SU-30 MKI

Flanker
Sukhoi

The Sukhoi-30 MKI, popularly known as the Flanker-H (NATO Reporting Name), is a multi-role, twin-seater, twin-engine, super maneuverable fighter jet developed by Russia. It is built under license by Hindustan Aeronautical Limited. It can attain speeds up to 2500 km/hr or Mach 2.35. It is the most sophisticated, state of the art multi-role fighter jet of the Indian Air Force. There are about 240 SU-30 MKI in India divided into 20 squadrons spread across the country.


2. Mirage 2000

IAF Mirage
Dassault Mirage

The Mirage 2000 of the Indian Air Force is a single-seater, single-engine, multi-role, defensive aircraft built and developed by the French aeronautical company, Dassault. It can attain a speed of up to 2495 km/hr and can carry two 30 mm internal cannons, two Matra-super 530D mid-range missiles, and two R-550 magic II close combat missiles to external stations.


3. MiG-29

IAF MiG
IAF MiG 29

The MiG-29 of the Indian Air Force is a twin-engine, single-seater, air superiority fighter aircraft that was originally developed by Russia. It can attain speeds up to 2445 km/hr or Mach 2.3. This is one of the most popular fighter planes of the Indian Air Force and has its predecessors namely, MiG-27 and MiG-21 BISON. It has a flight ceiling of about 17 kilometers.


4. Mig-27

MiG Series
IAF MiG

The MiG-27 is the predecessor of the MiG-29 Fighter and is slightly inferior to the MiG-29. It is a single seater, single engine, tactical strike fighter jet which was originally developed by Russia and now is in collaborated development with India. It can carry one 23 mm six-barrel rotary cannon and can freight up to 4 tonnes of external weapon load. The MiGs have been rather infamous for various technical accidents and have claimed the life of quite a number of the Indian Air Force officers.


5. LCA Tejas

Delta Wing LCA
IAF Tejas

Light Combat Aircraft Tejas, is India’s first indigenously developed fighter aircraft. It is developed by the Aeronautical Development Agency and Hindustan Aeronautical Limited. It is a single seater, single engine, multi-role, light fighter aircraft with a unique delta wing formation, providing it exquisite maneuverability. It can attain speeds up to 2205 km/hr. Tejas was developed to replace the MiG-21 fighter aircraft of the Indian Air Force.


6. Jaguar

Bomber
IAF Jaguar

The Jaguar is an Anglo-Frech developed single seater, twin-engine, deep pen-strike fighter. It can attain a speed of up to 1350 km/hr or Mach 1.3. It has two internal 30 mm guns, 2 R-350 Magic CCM missiles and can also freight 4750 kilograms of external load in form of bombs and fuel. The heart of Jaguar is the Rolls Royce Turbomeca Adour engine which is capable of thrusting it to the Mach 1.3 speed and carrying about 4750 kilograms of external load.


7. C-130J Super Hercules

C-130J SuperHercules
IAF C-130J

The Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules is a transport aircraft and can be used for transporting paratroops, heavy drops and can also be used for casualty evacuation. It is one of the heaviest aircraft to be owned by the Indian Air Force. It is a four-engine Turboprop military transport plane and can achieve speeds up to 670 km/hr. This aircraft is extremely popular and after development, was ordered by 15 countries.


8. C-17

Freighter
IAF C17

The C-17 Globemaster is a transport plane and is developed by Boeing in America. It was developed by McDonnell Douglas. The C-17 Globemaster can perform not only tactical missions but also strategic airlift missions. It can carry a payload of about 40 to 70 tonnes and can cover a distance of about 9000 kilometers in a single hop. It can attain a speed of about 830 km/hr or Mach 0.74.


9. MI-35

Mi35 Attack Helicopter
IAF Mi35

The MI-35 is a twin-engine helicopter popularly known as Hind (NATO reporting name), is capable of carrying an assault team of up to 8 men. It is an assault and anti-armour aircraft which carries a four-barrel 12.7 mm rotary gun. It can also carry Scorpion anti-tank missiles and an external load of 1500 kilograms. Presently there are 2 MI-35 squadrons in the Indian Air Force. It can attain speeds up to 333 km/hr.


10. MI-17 V5

MI 17 V5 Helicopter
IAF MI 17 V5

The MI-17 V5 is a medium-lift military helicopter and is equipped with state of the art avionics and glass cockpit instrumentation. They are also equipped with bleeding-edge navigational equipment and radars. It can attain speeds of up to 250 km/hr. It has a standard range of about 580 kilometers and can be extended to 1065 kilometers with auxiliary fuel tanks. It can also attain a maximum altitude of 6000 meters.

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Top 10 Popular Bird Sanctuary In India

India is a nation that has a huge biodiversity. Due to this, it is home to some very rare species of animals and birds. Speaking of birds India is home to the 1301 species of birds. Furthermore, during winters Siberian birds also migrate to India. Indian land is filled with all kinds of birds like Nilgiri flycatcher, Indian peacock, and Malabar parakeet. All of these birds can be found in their specific homes all over India. Being a large country also helps India to be home for a lot of species of birds.

However, these birds are not always safe they face hunting on a regular level. To protect them the Government of India has made bird sanctuaries, where these rare and beautiful species of birds are protected under surveillance. These bird sanctuaries are also a great tourist place for bird watchers, where they can have a look at some of the very rare species of birds. So’ here is a list of Top 10 Popular Bird Sanctuary In India.

1. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary

Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary, Rajasthan

Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary is located in Rajasthan and this bird sanctuary is also known by the name of Keoladeo Ghana National Park. This sanctuary was created 250 years ago by Maharaja Suraj Mal. It has an area of 29 km2 (11 sq mi) and is home to the 366 bird species. Some of these are waterfowls like Asian open-billed stork, oriental ibis, darter, common sandpiper, wood sandpiper, and green sandpiper. Some other land birds are bulbuls, buntings, chats, Painted francolins and quails. It is basically located near India.

2. Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary

Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary, Haryana

Sultanpur bird sanctuary is located in the Gurgaon district of Haryana and its 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) away Gurgaon. Every year hosts several immigrant birds like Amur falcons, Egyptian vultures, plovers, ducks, and storks. This bird sanctuary was formed in 1972 and further, in 1989 it was made a national park. This park has Rs. 5 entry fee. It is a perfect location for bird watchers because it gives them an astonishing view of birds like spotted owlet, rock pigeon, magpie robin, greater coucal, weaver bird, bank mynah, common mynah, and green bee-eater.

3. Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary

Salim Ali bird sanctuary, Goa

Salim Ali bird sanctuary is located in the state of Goa. In Goa, it is basically located on Chorão island, which is along the river Mandovi. It is named an Indian ornithologist Salim Ali, who was dedicated to the protection of birds. This bird sanctuary is very small in terms of area, which is only a 178 ha (440 acres) on but some very rare species of birds are found there that includes little bittern, black bittern, red knot, jack snipe, and pied avocet. Due to these bird species, Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary has become one of the famous tourist attractions in Goa.

4. Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary

Kumarakom bird sanctuary, Kerala

Kumarakom bird sanctuary is located in the state of Kerala. It is also known by the name of the Vembanad bird sanctuary, named after the Vembanad lake near it. It also becomes home to several migrant birds like the Siberian crane. Parrot, teal, lark, and flycatcher. There are also some local birds too that includes waterfowl, cuckoo, owl, cormorant, moorhen, darter, and brahminy kite. This bird sanctuary has an area of 14 acres (5.7 ha). It is basically located in the black waters of Kerala.

5.Ranganthittu Bird Sanctuary

Ranganthittu bird sanctuary, karnatka

Ranganthittu bird sanctuary is located in Karnataka on the banks of the Kaveri river. It has an area of 40 acres (16 ha). It hosted around 3 lakh visitors in 2016-2017. This bird sanctuary is home to 170 species of birds that includes Indian shag, Stork-billed Kingfisher, egret, cormorant, Oriental Darter, spot-billed pelican, and heron. This park was established back in 1940. This bird sanctuary is home to birds like light Ibis, Egret, Partridge, Heron, River Tern, and Snake Bird.

6.Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary

Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu

Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary is located in the state of Tamil Nadu. It was established in 1936 and has an area of 0.3 km2 (0.1 sq mi). This sanctuary is located 75 kilometers (47 mi) away from the capital city of Chennai. It is a famous location among bird watchers and hosts several species of migrant birds like garganey, grey wagtail, blue-winged teal, and common sandpiper. Around 40,000 birds visit Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary every year. This was a very famous hunting spot in the18th century. There is also a lake here, which is called as Vedanthangal lake and has a maximum depth of 5m.

7.Kolleru Lake Bird Sanctuary

Kolleru Lake bird sanctuary, AP

Kolleru Lake bird sanctuary is located in Andhra Pradesh and has an area of 357.6 km2 (88,400 acres). This region was made bird sanctuary in 1999. It has an area of 673 square kilometers. As its name suggest its main attraction is Kolleru Lake. Kolleru Lake Bird Sanctuary covers a large area of Krishna and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh. It has become a big tourist attraction due to the presence of various species of birds in Kolleru Lake.

8.Chilika Lake Bird Sanctuary

Chilika lake bird sanctuary- Lake

Chilika lake bird sanctuary is located in Orissa and is named after Chilika lake. Chillika lake being the main attraction this sanctuary has become one of the main tourist spots in Orissa. This region hosts a large population of migrant birds from Russia in winter. This makes it a perfect destination for bird watchers. In 1998 a survey was conducted, which showed the bird population in Chilika lake equal to 2 million. This lake is a brackish water lagoon and has an area of 1,100 km2. The birds found in Chilika lake includes white-bellied sea eagles, pariah kites, kestrels, and marsh harriers.

9. Mayani Bird Sanctuary

Mayani Bird Sanctuary, Maharashtra

Mayani Bird Sanctuary is located in the state of Maharashtra. Every year Siberia flamingos come to Mayani Bird Sanctuary and make it a destination for many bird watchers. It is located in the Satara district and is a famous location. Alongside flamingos, many other species of birds are also found there that include northern shoveller, stork and kingfisher. There is a lake in the region which was built due to the Mayani Dam, this becomes the home for migrant birds. It is a must-visit place between the months of November and January.

10. Kanwar Lake Bird Sanctuary

Kanwar Lake Bird Sanctuary, Bihar

Kanwar Lake or Kanwar Taal Bird Sanctuary is located in the state of Bihar and has an area of 120.82-square-kilometer (46.65 sq mi). It was established in 1987 and it hosts almost 60 species of migrant birds every winter. Alongside these, there are 106 species of local birds too. Some of these birds are critically endangered too. These include Indian darter, Painted Stork, Black-bellied Tern, Oriental white-backed vulture, and Long-billed Vulture. Due to these birds, it is one of the most famous tourist spots in Bihar.

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Top 10 Most Popular Indoor games played in India

Humans have always opted for entertainment and if it can be achieved in the comfort of their homes, it is even better. Indoor games can be played and enjoyed by children and it can be an easy and great activity for younger kids and toddlers. Indoor games and sports are thus the solutions of this struggle to entertain ourselves in any weather and at any time. Indoor games provide with great entertainment in any weather. Indoor games and sports can be of various types such as Board games (Chess, Ludo etc), card games (Poker, Bridge etc), table-type games (Table tennis, Carrom etc) or small court games (Badminton, Basketball etc). Indoor games are great for both mind practice and also good physical activity. Many studies have found that these games are very good and important for the overall personality development of a child, thus many schools also encourage the kids to get involved in these sports and activities.

India has been one of the oldest nations with the concepts of Indoor games. Some of the world’s most popular indoor games such as Chess was invented in India. Indians are said to be really good at many outdoor games but today many Indoor games are gaining much popularity in India. Nowadays many of India’s indoor game players are standing at the top of their game. The Indian government has also made efforts to help the education department to involve the children in indoor activities for complete development of the child’s personality.

There are many indoor games which are very popular in Indi, and if you would like to know more about these games, we have compiled the of Top 10 Most Popular Indoor Games in India:

1. Chess

Vishwanathan Anand Playing Chess

Chess is a game easily ranks as the top choice whether in ancient India or today. It is often called as a war over a board. No other game is said to stimulate the players’ mind as a game of chess does. Indians have always been said to be good at Chess. Chess is game for all age groups and can be enjoyed at any time or place. It helps in improving mind coordination and concentration like no other.

Chess is played on a chess board with each player having 16 pieces each. The main objective of the player is to lead the opponent’s King into checkmate. The most notable Indian chess player has been Vishwanathan Anand.

2. Table tennis

players of Table-Tennis

The smaller and indoor version of the lawn tennis is the Table Tennis. This is definitely a sport which is among the most popular ones in the world and also in India. Table Tennis is played on a table which is divided by net, the players use small paddles to hit a lightweight ball over to the other end. Though it sounds easy, it requires a lot of practice. Also, it improves flexibility and enhances the motor skills and concentration of the player.

It is among the few high-intensity indoor sports which cause a very low chance of injury due to no physical contact and indoor environment.


3. Badminton

Player of Badmiton

Badminton is an indoor sport which has gained very high popularity in the last decade in India. Many players such as Sania Nehwal, P.V. Sandhu, Srikanth Kidambi have become role models for many children in India. Badminton is a game played with rackets in which a shuttlecock is hit such as to cross over the net. It is a game is the perfect combination of light as well as intense gaming.

Playing badminton helps in reducing bad cholesterol. It helps in better circulation which helps in improving body’s stamina and overall health.


4. Boxing

Players of Boxing

If you have to find a sport which is the ultimate test your endurance, guts and strength, it is none other than Boxing. This sport is popular and well known for strengthening body and mind and also learning self-defence. Also, boxing helps those people who have anger-management issues. Boxing professionally is not only a national but also an international phenomenon.

In boxing, the players have to fight by using their fists within a set of specific rules in a boxing ring. Boxing also teaches the player to have sportsman-spirit and not take the fight off the ring.


5. Futsal

Players of Futsal

Ever since football gained booming popularity across the globe, it is natural to think of a way to bring this sensation indoors as well. The result of this is Futsal. It is a smaller version of football which is played with 5 players on each side on a smaller field. The game is native to Brazil and Uruguay and has gained a lot of popularity in India. India has also started its own futsal league which is played by both native and international players.

It is a sport that involves a lot of physical activity and is a faster version of Football. It helps as a great physical activity for a change.


6. Kabaddi

Pro-Kabaddi League

Originating from parts of ancient India, Kabaddi is a very popular indoor game. The game is especially popular in South-east Asian countries and has gained recognition across the globe. It is not uncommon to see kids in India to play Kabaddi as a sport in school and among friends. It is similar to wrestling and involves high physical involvement. Kabaddi was first introduced in Asian Games in Bejing in 1990.

Today, Kabaddi has gained even more popularity because of its propagation through leagues such as Pro-Kabaddi League.


7. Basketball

Jordan playing Basketball

Basketball is undoubtedly one of the most popular sports in the world. Many legendary players such as Michael Jordan, Shaquille O’Neal, Magic Johnson, Larry Son etc have contributed highly to the popularity of this sport. If you go to any school in India, there is rarely any which doesn’t have most of its students playing basketball. It is among the most popular indoor and team games.

Basketball is played with 5 players on each team and is a high intensity, fast sport. It is a sport which is not only entertaining for the players but involves anyone watching it!


8. Bowling

Bowling alley

Today, if there is any social gathering or just friends and family weekend, one of the most popular choices is the bowling alley. Bowling is a sport which has gained a lot of popularity not only as a fun time indoor sport but also as a professional sport played at competitive and elite ranks. It is a sport in which the player needs to roll a bowling ball down a lane such that it hits a group of pins and knocks them down.

Though this may sound easy, it takes a lot to practice and skill to actually knock the pins down. If you are interested, do try this sport with your friends and family.


9. Carrom

Carrom board

Who does not love a good game of carrom with family and friends? Carrom is a sport which is played in almost every household of India. If you think of your memories from childhood, it sure involves a happy time of everyone playing carrom together. Carrom is played at many professional levels in India. But sadly, it has no been recognized by the Olympics. Carrom is played with a cue-type sports objective.

Carrom is a tabletop game which is played with the objective to pocket all the carrom men by the use of a striker. The action used to strike is a flick of fingers.


10. Snooker

Table of snooker

The modified version of the traditional billiards is Snooker. It is an indoor game played on the billiards table. It has gained a lot of popularity over the years. It is very common for many businesses to be discussed over a game of snooker or even the Defence officials to play snooker during off-duty. Snooker is played on the billiards table with 15 red balls and 6 different coloured balls that need to be a pot with the help of the white cue ball.

It has many benefits such are improving focus and calculation, improving coordination and also enhancing self-confidence!

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10 Biggest and popular Deserts in India

India is a very large country, hence there is a lot of types of landscape you see here. A large portion of the Indian landscape includes deserts alongside grasslands and forests. Desert is the barren land where a very low or no amount of greenery is present. India’s large landscape has a lot of different deserted areas. However, being a completely barren land, these deserts can entertain some tourists too.

The tourists, which mainly like to get away from hustle and bustle of the city visit these deserted destinations. These destinations offer stunning views of the deserted landscape, that can set everyone’s mind at ease. These deserts can also be dangerous too, hence if you want to take a trip do it carefully. To increase your knowledge about deserts in India, we are coming with a list of 10 Biggest and popular Deserts in India.

1. Great Rann of Kutch

Great Rann of Kutch,Gujarat

The Great Rann of Kutch often called as Rann or Kutch is located in the northern region of Gujarat. It has an area of 7500 sq km ( 2900 sq miles) and it is a part of Thar Desert. Its area spread from Gujarat to all the way to Pakistan border. It is basically a salt desert that looks white in appearance, hence called as the white desert. The weather in Kutch stays very hot mostly and reaches up to 50-degree Celcius and at night it can be lower than freezing point too. Every year hosts a 3-month festival called as Rann Utsav. This festival hosts a number of tourists. The main attraction of Rann Utsav is the shining white desert under the full moon.

2. The Thar Desert

The Thar Desert, Rajasthan

Thar desert is the main desert of western India and all other deserts there its subparts. It has an area of 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq mi) making it the 17th largest desert in the world and 9th largest subtropic desert. Its 75 percent area is in India and rest is in Pakistan. Basically, most of the area of Rajasthan is in Thar desert. Thar desert consists of all kinds of subtropical desert landscape. Its 10 percent area is sand dunes and the rest consists of craggy rocks, grasslands, and dry salt lake patches. The weather in Thar desert stay very hot mostly and reaches up to 50-degree Celcius and at night it can be lower than freezing point too.

3. The Deccan Thorn Scrub Forests

The Deccan Thorn Scrub Forests, South India

The Deccan Thorn Scrub Forests are basically dry forests that cover most of the landscape of South India. They are mainly spread across the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra. It is a very dry area and the temperature here can reach up to 40 degrees Celcius in summers. This terrain is mostly rocky hence there is no large vegetation in the area. Only bushes and small three survive in Deccan Thorn Scrub Forests. However, this area makes a home for 350 species of birds, which can survive here.

4. Spiti Valley Cold Desert

Spiti Valley Cold Desert, Himachal Pradesh

Spiti Valley is a cold desert located in the northern region of Himachal Pradesh. It is a completely barren land. Due to the high altitude and lack of oxygen, there is a very low amount of vegetation there. This landscape basically consists of huge barren mountains. These mountains make the whole landscape look stunning. Spiti Valley is a great getaway from hustle and bustle of the city and is a perfect location for people who want to get a view of the beautiful night sky in the mountains. Spiti valley is mostly closed during winters when there is heavy snowfall. Spiti Valley is also famous for Buddhist monasteries.

5. Pushkar

Pushkar, Rajasthan

Pushkar is located in Ajmer district in the state of Rajasthan. It is basically a part of Thar Desert and the most of terrain in and near the town is sand dunes and craggy rocks. It is a religious place which is visited by Sikhs and Hindus. It has Gurudwaras dedicated to Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh and has the only Hindu temple dedicated to lord Bramaha, which is named as Jagatpita Brahma Mandir. Pushkar is also famous for hosting Pushkar fair every year, which attracts a lot of tourists throughout the year. In Pushkar tourist can also get camel rides too.

6. Bikaner

Bikaner, Rajasthan

Bikaner is located in the northwest region of the state of Rajasthan. It is a city with an area of 155 km2 (60 sq mi) and a population of 644,406 as per 2011 census. It is one of the oldest cities in Rajasthan and consists of a terrain having sand dunes, where tourist can enjoy camel rides. Bikaner is also known of Rats temple, which is very unique. In the month of May temperature in Bikaner can reach up to 50 degrees and at night it can get as cold as -4 degrees too. Bikaner has various temples and palaces too, which become a great attraction for tourist.

7. Jodhpur

Jodhpur, Rajasthan

Jodhpur is a city located in Rajasthan and is also known as the Blue City, due to a large number of Blue houses in the City. It is an old city and most of the part is bounded with large fort walls, which were made for protection from attackers. It has an area of 78.6 km2 (30.3 sq mi) and a population of 1,056,191 as per 2011 census. Jodhpur is also known as Gateway to Thar. It also has various temples and palaces too, which become a great attraction for tourist. All of these are a great piece of architecture and history. Due to all of the above and great view of the desert, Jodhpur has become one of the most popular tourist destinations in India.

8. Nubra Valley

Nubra valley, Kashmir

Nubra Valley is located in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is 150 km away from Leh Town. It also consists of barren mountains and is a cold desert. It is 10,000 ft. or 3048 meters above sea level and this high altitude make this landscape a barren mountain land. Alongside huge mountains, Nubra valley also has some white sand dunes too. It is a very isolated area as compared to the Spiti Valley and otherwise, it is more or less the same. It also gives the view of the beautiful night sky in the mountains. Nubra valley is mostly closed during winters when there is heavy snowfall.

9. Khimsar

Khimsar rajasthan

Khimsar is located in Rajasthan and is a small village. It is 90 km away from Jodhpur and Bikaner highway and is popular for hosting Nagaur festival every year. Alongside the Nagaur festival, the main attraction of Khilmsar is the 450 years old Nagaur fort, which is awarded “National grand heritage award for excellence”. All of these alongside sand dunes attracts a lot of tourists to Khimsar making it a very popular destination among all of the people living in Rajasthan.

10. Jaisalmer

Jaisalmer, Rajasthan

Jaisalmer is located in Rajasthan and is called as The Golden City. It is located in the west most region of Rajasthan and has an area of 5.1 km2 (2.0 sq mi) and a population of 65,471. During summers temperature can reach up to up to 50 degrees and at nights it can get as cold as -4 degrees too. Jaisalmer has a lot of historic temples and forts in the middle of the Thar desert, which offers a great view and attracts a lot of tourists. Alongside, these attractions Jaisalmer is also known for camel rides in the sand dunes of Thar desert.

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12 Longest Tunnel of Railway and Road in India

The Railways and Roadways form the lifeline of transportation in India. Here we are discussing the longest tunnel of railway and road. But as you all know that railways in India are not only the biggest employer in the world but also a very important act of transportation method for long distances. It employs over 1.4 million people as per the latest records, which is huge! It is among the world’s largest railway networks which are spread over 1,15,000 km of the total length of the track. While the railways are of high importance, on the other hand, India has grown a lot in its Road transportation as well. India has the second largest road network in the world with a total length of 43,20,000 km.

Owing to the geographic ups and downs, India has seen the struggle of making tracks and roads on many new sort paths too, which led to the formation of strong and long tunnels. The tunnels have been built to help with the issues of time and geographic limitations. Most of these tunnels are built through soil, earth or rocks and are open on both ends which are used for transportation. These tunnels are very long and have held strong for many years now. Some of these man-made tunnels are as long as 11,215 meters.

Here, we have the list of 12 Longest Tunnel of Railway and Road in India


1. Pir Panjal Tunnel

Pir Panjal Tunnel in JK

The first and the longest tunnel on this list is the Pir Panjal Tunnel. It is the longest rail tunnel in India by a total length of 11.2 km. It is located in the Pir Panjal Range which is laid in the middle of the Himalayas. It is also known as Banihal Railway Tunnel. It forms the part of the Jammu to Baramulla line which in itself is a track of 345 km. This tunnel is present at an elevation of 5,770 ft.


2. Karbude Tunnel

Karbude Tunnel of Konkan Rialway

The second longest tunnel presently is the Karbude Tunnel which belongs to the Konkan Railways. It has a total length of 6,506 metres. It forms the parts of Konkan Rails in the Maharastra district. It stayed as the longest tunnel in India for a long time, that is, from 1997-2013, until the Pir Panjal Tunnel was constructed. It is also referred to as the tunnel number 35 (T-35).


3. Natuwadi Tunnel

Natuwadi Tunnel in Maharashtra

The next name on the list of the longest rail tunnels in India is of the Natuwadi Tunnel. The total length of this tunnel is 4,389 metres and was constructed in 1997. It is also a part of the Konkan Railways and is present in the state of Maharashtra. It has the stations of Karanjadi and Diwna Khavati. It is referred to as the tunnel number 6 (T-6) and is among the most frequently used tunnels presently.


4. Tike Tunnel

tike-tunnel in Maharashtra

The Tike Tunnel is the next rail-tunnel on the list of the longest Indian tunnels. It has a total track length of 4,077 metres and this is the 4th longest rail-tunnel in India. It was also part of the Konkan Railway project which started in 1997 and thus is present in the state of Maharashtra. It has the stations of Ratnagiri and Nivasar. The tunnel number given to this tunnel is 39 also known as (T-39).


5. Berdewadi Tunnel

Berwadi Tunnel in Maharashtra

With a total length of 4,000 metres, the next name on our list of top longest rail and road tunnels is the Berdewadi Tunnel. It was also the part of 1997, Konkan Railways project and is crucial to the railway network of the state of Maharashtra. The stations of this tunnel are the Adavali and Vilawade. The tunnel number given to the Berdewadi Tunnel is 49, that is, (T-49).


6. Savarde Tunnel

Sarvade Tunnel of the Konkan rails

The next tunnel that ranks in the 12 longest rail and road tunnels in India is the Savarde tunnel. It has a total length of 3,429 metres of tracks. As no surprise, this tunnel was also the part of the Konkan Railways project and was constructed in 1997. It has the stations of Kamathe and Savarde, present in the state of Maharashtra. The tunnel number of this rail tunnel is 17, i.e., (T-17).


7. Chenani Nashri Tunnel

Chenani Nashri Tunnel in JK

The Longest Road tunnel in India is the Chenani Nashri Tunnel. It is also known by the name of Patnitop Tunnel. It is present on NH-44 and in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It has a total length of 9,200 metres and the allowed operating speed is 50kmph. The road is at an elevation of 1,200 metres. It became the longest tunnel in India in 2017, after inauguration by PM Narendra Modi.


8. Rohtang Tunnel

Rohtang Tunnel in Himachal

The Rohtang Tunnel or Atal Tunnel is presently the second-longest road tunnel in India which will be opened for use very soon. It has a total length of 8,800 metres and is present in the state of Himachal Pradesh. The main objective of this tunnel was to keep the roads open for the Rohtang pass even during winters in blizzards and snowfall. It is being constructed on the Leh-Manali Highway and will be very beneficial.


9. Jawahar Tunnel

Jawahar tunnel is 2 tube lane tunnel

Present in the state of Jammu and Kashmir is the next longest road tunnel in India, which is the Jawahar Tunnel. It is also known as the Banihal Tunnel. The total length of the tunnel is about 2.85 km and is the third longest road tunnel in India. It is situated at an elevation of 2,800m (9,200 ft). The tunnel has been in operation since 1956 and was renovated in 1960 by Border Roads Organisation.


10. Ghat Ki Guni Tunnel

Ghat Ki Guni Tunnel is in Jaipur

The next name on this list of the longest road tunnels in India is the Ghat Ki Guni Tunnel. This tunnel has a length of 2.80 km. It is present in Jaipur, the state of Rajasthan. The main objective of this tunnel was to link Jaipur with the National Highway 11 to the city of Agra and Bharatpur. It was constructed and inaugurated by the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.


11. Aut Tunnel

Aut Tunnel in Himachal Pradesh

The second last name on this list is of the Aut tunnel which is located in the state of Himachal Pradesh. The tunnel runs for a length of 2.76 km. This tunnel is built near the Larji Dam Reservoir and was built for helping to provide better access to Kullu and Manali for outer cities. The main objective of the tunnel was to form the Chandigarh-Manali highway through NH21.


12. Kamshet Tunnel

Kamshet Tunnel in operation

The Kamshet Tunnel is also one the longest tunnels in India and among the longest in the state of Maharashtra. It is present in the famous and renowned Mumbai-Pune expressway, which is India’s very first concrete tolled expressway with the six-lane system. The tunnel has a stretch of about 2 km and is this very useful in cutting distance and time by a good length.

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Top 10 Longest National Highways in India 2020

India is the seventh-largest nation in the world in terms of area, which has an area of 3.287 million km². The most part of this area is land and desert. To connect such a large country for traveling can only be achieved by roads. To make traveling possible through the country. Indian Government has constructed 92,851.05 km of roads and this number is growing day by day. Indian national highway system connects each and every major city with each other.

National highways are numbered to take track of them. This highway network is very large and complex, hence needs maintenance from time to time. This maintenance work is carried out by the National Highway Authority Of India (NHAI), which works under the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.

Below we have listed 10 Longest National Highways in India

1.) NH 44

NH 7, Highway

NH 44 which was previously called as NH 7 is the longest National Highway in India. It has a length of 3,745 kilometers and it connects many important cities with each other. This Highway was made by Central Public Works Department and still, it is maintained by the same department. It starts from North India, particularly speaking in Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir and ends in Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu which is also called the southmost point of the Indian peninsula. This highway in India runs through 12 states which include states of Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu.

2.) NH 27

NH 27, highway

NH 27 is spanned over a distance of 3,507 km, which makes it the second-longest highway in India. While NH 44 runs from North to South it runs from west to east. It starts from Porbandar which is in Gujarat and goes to Silchar in Assam. The NH 27 runs through seven states which include Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal and, Assam. Some major cities connected by National Highway 27 are Surat, Amravati, Nagpur, Bhandara, Durg, Raipur, Mahasamund, Sambalpur, Kharagpur, and Kolkata.

3.) NH 48

NH 48, Highway

NH 48 is another large Indian highway that has a distance of 2,807 km making it the third-longest in India. It also connects north to south. It connects two major cities with each other. It starts from New Delhi and terminates in Chennai. It was previously known as NH 4 and NH 8. Currently, Delhi-Gurugram expressway, Jaipur-Kishangarh expressway, and the Western Expressway are its parts. It runs from seven states and connects Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. Some other major cities in its path are Jaipur, Ajmer, Kishangarh, Chittorgarh, Udaipur, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Vapi, Ankleshwar, Surat, Mumbai, Thane, Pune, Satara, Kolhapur, Belgaum, Bengaluru, and Vellore.

4.) NH 52

NH 52, Highway

NH 52 is 2,317 km long making it the fourth-longest in India. It also runs from North to South. It begins from Sangrur, which is a city in Punjab and ends at Ankola, which is located in Karnataka. This highway is connected to NH 7 and NH 66. This national highway runs through six states that include Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Karnataka. Some major cities that are connected by NH 52 are Jaipur, Tonk, Bundi, Talera, Kota, Jhalawar, Aklera, Rajgarh, Biora, Dewas, Indore, Chalisgaon, Aurangabad, Osmanabad, Bijapur, Hubli, and Ankola.

5.) NH 30

NH 30, Highway

Nh 30 was previously known by the name of NH 221. It has a length of 2,040 km making it the fifth-longest national highway in India. It starts from Sitarganj, which is a town in Uttarakhand and terminates at Ibrahimpatnam, which is located in Andhra Pradesh. It is connected with NH 9 and 65. It connects 8 states in its way, which are Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, and Telangana. Some major cities falling in its way are Lucknow, Raebareli, Paryagraj, Rewa, Katni, Jabalpur, Mandla, Raipur, Dhamtari, Keskal, Jagdalpur, Konta, Bhadrachalam, Kottagudem, Tiravuru, Mailavaram, and Kondapalle.

6.) NH 6

NH 6,highway

NH 6 is 1,873 km long and is the sixth-longest national highway in India. It runs in North-East India and is also called as the backbone of Northeast. It is connected with NH 44, NH 37, NH 2, NH 54, NH 53, NH 40, and NH 154. It connects three states of the northeast with each other, which are Meghalaya, Assam, and Mizoram. Some major cities coming in its way are Jorabat, Shillong, Badarpur, Panchgram, Kolasib, Aizawl, and Seling. This highway offers a very beautiful view of northeastern mountains.

7.) NH 53

NH 53, Highway

National Highway 53 is 1,781 km making it the seventh-longest highway in India. It begins from Hajira in Gujarat and ends in Paradip which is a port in Odisha. It is also a part of Asian Highway 46. It connects the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, and Odisha. The cities that it connects include Surat, Uchchhal, Dhule, Jalgaon, Nashirabad, Bhusawal, Akola, Amravati, Nagpur, Raipur, Arang, Saraipali, Bargarh, Sambalpur, Deogarh, Dubri, Chandhikhol, Haridaspur, and Paradip Port.

8.) NH 16

NH 16, Highway

NH 16 has a length of 1,711 km. It connects east to south and biggins from Kolkata in the east and terminates in Chennai in the south. It was previously called as NH 5 and was a part of the “Golden Quadrilateral” project. But now it is under the “National Highways Development Project“. It passes through four states West Bengal, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. except for Chennai and Kolkata, some major cities connected to it are Kharagpur, Baleshwar, Cuttack, Bhubaneshwar, Berhampur, Vishakhapatnam, Vijayawada, and Guntur.

9.) NH 66

NH 66, Highway

NH 66 was previously known as National Highway 17. It runs in South India and connects 1,622 kilometers. It starts from Panvel, which is located in Maharashtra and terminates in Kanyakumari, which is the southernmost point of the Indian peninsula. It runs from 5 states, which are Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. There are numerous cities on its way some of them are Kasaragod, Taliparambu, Kannur, Thalassery, Vatakara, Payyoli, Koyilandi, Kozhikode, Feroke, Ramanattukara, Tirurangadi, Kottakkal, Valanchery, Ponnani, Chavakkad, Kodungallur, North Paravur, and Kochin. This national highway offers magnificent views of the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats.

10.) NH 19

NH 19, Highway

NH 19 was previously called as National Highway 2. It has a total length of 1,435 km. It connects Delhi to Kolkata. It runs from states of Delhi(Union territory), Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal. Some major cities on its way are Faridabad, Palwal, Mathura, Agra, Firozabad, Etawah, Babarpur Ajitmal, Auraiya, Kanpur, Fatehpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Mughalsarai, and Aurangabad. It is also a part of the Asian Highway Network.

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8 Different Types of Soil Found in India

India is a big country with an area of 3.287 million km², hence landscape varies by a large amount. Furthermore, India is an agricultural nation. So the vivid landscape allows Indians to grow a large type of crops throughout the year. The main factor that affects the quality of the crop is the soil. India being a large country has different types of soils.

These soils vary by due to different environmental factors like temperature, humidity, and terrain of that area. The terrain is not very similar throughout a land like India, hence soil also varies through the land. Not only by color and texture these soils vary in quality and types of minerals in them too. Therefore, these soils are needed to be classified into different types. This job was taken by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) they started a survey in 1953 and classified soils in India into eight major types. So here is a list of 8 Different types of soil found in India.

1.) Alluvial soils

Alluvial Soil

Alluvial soil is mainly found in states of Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, UP, Bihar, and Jharkhand, where the terrain is plain. Alluvial soil is rich in Potash and Lime but has a very low amount of Nitrogen and Phosphorous. It can grow a large variety of crop like such as wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton, jute etc. This soil is mainly found near river banks because its deposition comes from the Himalayas with means of rivers. Later due to several geographic reasons, this soil has spread all over the land and it has covered 40 percent of the total Indian land. Alongside the aforementioned regions, this soil is also found in Krishna, Godavari, Kaveri, and Mahanadi.


2.) Black (or Regur soil)

Black Soil or regular soil.

Black soil is most commonly found in the southern parts of the country and has a large deposition in the states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and also in the Valleys of Krishna and Godavari. It has Lime, Iron, Magnesia and Alumina, Potash in a large amount but has Phosphorous, Nitrogen and organic matter is very low quantity. It is perfect to grow crops like Cotton, sugarcane, jowar, tobacco, wheat, and rice. It is also known as regur and Black Cotten soil due to its being fit for the growth of cotton. It is formed by the breakdown of Volcanic rocks several million years ago due to various geographic factors.


3.) Red and Yellow soils

Red Soil

Red and Yellow soils are found in some highly separated regions. These regions include the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau, Orissa, Chattisgarh and southern parts of the plain of middle Ganga. It is rich in Iron and Potash but lacks Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and hummus in quantity. It can grow crops like Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane, and pulses. Its texture can vary from clayey to sandy. It is the result of the geographic actions of metamorphic and igneous rocks. Red soil has a very large deposition in India that is little above 10 percent of the area of the whole nation.


4.) Laterite soils

Laterite Soil

Laterite soil is mainly found in South India alongside some areas of the Northeast too. It includes states like Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, and Orissa. It is rich in Iron oxide and potash that gives it its red color but has a very low amount of Organic matter, Nitrogen, Phosphate, and Calcium. It is used to grow crops like Cashew nuts, tea, coffee, and rubber. Laterite is a soil that has a brick-like texture and that is the reason its name being ‘Laterite’, which comes from the word ‘Later’ which means ‘brick’. This soil is acidic in nature and has a certain property of being hard when it is dry and soft when its wet.


5.) Arid and desert soils

Desert Soil

Arid and desert soil has its main deposition in the western areas of the country. It includes states such as Western Rajasthan, north Gujarat, and southern Punjab. It is rich in minerals like soluble salts and phosphate. But it has Humus, Nitrogen in very low amount. This soil is not made agriculture due to lack of humus so very specific types of crops can survive it, which includes barley, cotton, millet maize and pulses. This soil is sandy in nature and has 90 to 95 percent of sand and rest is clay. This soil is perfect for cacti and shrubs which can grow and survive with a very low amount of moisture.


6.) Saline and alkaline soils

Alkaline Soil

Saline and Alkaline soils are unfit for agricultural purposes. It is mainly found in regions of Western Gujarat, deltas of the eastern coast, Sunderban areas of West Bengal, Punjab and Haryana. It has Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium in very high quantity and lacks in Nitrogen and Calcium. As mentioned earlier, it is completely unfit for agriculture. This soil contains the salt deposition that comes from rivers. This soil is rich in un-decomposed contents making it alkaline in nature. This soil is a result of seawater too. Due to different geographic actions the salt of seawater transfers into the soil making it Saline.


7.) Peaty and marshy soils

Peaty Soil

Peaty and Marshy soils are very rare in India and are found in some regions of Kerala which is particularly peaty soil. The marshy soil, in particular, is found in some states such as Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Uttarakhand and Sunderbans area of West Bengal. These two soils are made up of organic matter and soluble salts, they have a black color and a heavy texture alongside being acidic in nature. These two soils have phosphate and potash in a very low amount. This type of soil is not considered very good for crop plantations.


8.) Forest and mountain soils

Forest Soil

Forests and Mountain soil have depositions in high altitude areas of Himalayas and is found in states of Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, and Assam and in some parts of Kerala too. This soil is rich in organic matter making it perfect for the growth of forests. This soil lacks in potash and phosphorus content. The crops grown on this soil depend upon the other geographic factors like temperature and humidity too. Maize, barley, wheat are grown in high altitude regions and tropical fruits, coffee, tea or spices are grown in regions of Kerala too.

Soil found in India

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10 Largest Freshwater Lakes in India

India is a very large country in terms of area and is the 7th largest country in the world. This land is so big that it contains a huge channel made by a lot of rivers that pass through this land. These rivers have made some large freshwater lakes throughout the Indian land. There are some artificial lakes too that were made by humans but they are also a result of water from these rivers.

India’s largest lake is Vembanad that has an area of 2033 sq km and a depth of 12m. Vembanad is located in Kerala and is a half fresh half brackish. Brackish is water that is slightly saline but lesser than seawater. In this article, we are covering only freshwater lakes so some large lakes like Vembanad, Chilika, Pangong Tso and Pulikat lake would be out of the list due to the saline nature of there water. So’ here is a list 10 largest freshwater Lakes in India.

1. Shivaji Sagar Lake

Shiva Sagar, Maharashtra

Shivaji Sagar is the largest artificial freshwater lake in India and is located in Maharashtra. It has a surface area of 891.78 km2 (344 sq mi) and a maximum depth of 80 m (260 ft) making the whole water volume in Shivaji Sagar 2,797,400,000 cubic meters. It is basically a water reservoir which is a result of the construction of the Konya dam Konya river. Konya dam was constructed in 1964 and its construction resulted in the largest artificial freshwater lake in India. Shivaji Sagar is named after legendary Maratha ruler Shivaji. Shivaji Sagar is located near Mahableshwar.


2. Indira Sagar lake

Indira Sagar, Telangana

Indira is another artificial freshwater lake in India and is the second largest coming after Shivaji Sagar in terms of Surface area. It has a surface area of 627 sq. km. It is also a water reservoir and is located in the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is built as a result of the Indira Sagar Dam on the Narmada river. Indira Sagar is one of the most important dams in India, it helps in irrigation of 1,230 square kilometers of land and produces a power of 1000 MW. Its construction began in the year 1992 and was finalized in 2005. It is named after late Prime Minister of India Mrs. Indira Gandhi.


3. Sardar Sarovar lake

Sardar Sarovar, Gujarat

Sardar Sarovar is also a man-made freshwater lake located in Navagam in the state of Gujarat. It is a result of Sardar Sarovar Dam, which is also built on the river Narmada. It is also a water reservoir that provides water to four states Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan. It was completed in 2017 and was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. This water reservoir irrigates 18,000 km2 (6,900 sq mi) of land. There are total 30 dams built on the Narmada river and Sardar Sarovar is largest of them.


4. Loktak Lake

Loktak, Manipur

Loktak Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Northeastern India and some considered it to be the largest too but its argued due to the several small floating islands on this lake. It is located in the state of Manipur and has a surface area of 287 sq. km. It is a relatively shallow lake has an average depth of 4.6 m. It is located on a height of 768.5 m (2,521 ft). Loktak produces 1,500 tonnes (6,600,000 lb) of fishery every year and it has 1,00,000 people living around it. Loktak has reported being home of 425 species of animals out of which 249 are vertebrae.


5. Nagarjuna Sagar Lake

Nagarjunasagar, Telangana

Nagarjuna Sagar is another artificial freshwater lake and it is also a water reservoir. It is located in the Nalgonda district of Telangana State. It is a reservoir of Nagarjuna Sagar Dam which is one of the tallest and biggest Masonry dams in the world and was built in 1967. Nagarjuna Sagar lake is 285 sq. km making it the fifth-largest freshwater reservoir in India. It is built across the Krishna river. This lake provides irrigation water to the Nalgonda, Suryapet, Krishna, Khammam, Guntur, and Prakasam districts. Nagarjuna Sagar is also a famous tourist spot near Hyderabad.


6. Wular Lake

Wular Lake, Jammu and Kashmir

Wular lake is considered as the largest natural freshwater lake in India but its area changes drastically from season to season. It can be 12 square miles (30 square kilometers) to 100 square miles (260 square kilometers). Its water came from Jhelum river and it is located in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Wular lake has a maximum depth is of 12 meters. Wular lake is one of the biggest tourist attractions in Jammu and Kashmir and is known for boating and water skiing. Wular has also lost some of its surface areas due to Willow plantations.


7. Kolleru Lake

Kolleru Lake

Kolleru lake is located in the state of Andhra Pradesh and is a natural freshwater lake. It has a surface area of 245 sq. km and is a shallow lake with an average depth of 1 m and a maximum depth of 2 m. It also has an island in it which is named as Kolletikota and also called as (Heart of Kolleru Lake). This lake is also a tourist attraction due to the immigrant birds coming there in winters. In 1999 Kolleru lake and area around it were declared as wildlife sanctuary which has an area of 308 km2. The total population of the birds in this lake can reach 20 million in winter.


8. Gobind Sagar

Gobind Sagar, Himachal Pradesh

Gobind Sagar is an artificial freshwater lake located in the state of Himachal Pradesh in district Bilaspur and Una. It has a depth of 163.07 m (535.0 ft) and an area of 168 sq. km. It is built on the Sutlej river and to maintain the flow of Beas river it was connected to the Gobind Sagar in 1976 by Beas-Sutlej link. This lake has ferries and water sports as its main attraction. This reservoir is very large it has a length of 56 km and 3 km breadth. Speedboating is one the popular water sports that Gobind Sagar offers.


9. Dhebar Lake

Dhebar Lake, Rajasthan

Dhebar lake is located in the Udaipur district of the state of Rajasthan. It is one of the oldest artificial freshwater lakes and was built in the 17th century by Rana Jai Singh back then it was the largest artificial lake in the world. It has an area of 87 km2 (34 sq mi) and a maximum depth of 102 ft (31 m). It gets its water from the Gomati River. It was created due to the large marble dam built across the Gomati river to fulfill the irrigation needs of nearby areas. Dhebar lake has three islands on it.


10. Kanwar Lake

Kanwar lake, Bihar

Kanwar lake is located in the state of Bihar and is also known as Kabar Taal lake. It is a natural freshwater lake and has an area of 67.5 km2. In 1987 Kanwar Lake became a bird century that is home to 106 species of birds, 60 of them are immigrants from central Asia that came to India during winters. Some of the birds that come to Kanwar lake are the Oriental white-backed vulture, the Long-billed vulture, Greater Adjutant (Leptoptilos dubiu), Greater spotted eagle (Aquila clanga), Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni) and Sarus crane (Grus Antigone). The presence of these birds makes Kanwar lake a perfect place for bird watchers.

Below is the list of 140 other major Lakes in India

Lakes NameLocationState Name
Agara LakeBengaluruKarnataka
Alwal Cheruvu LakeSecunderabadTelangana
Ana Sagar LakeAjmerRajasthan
Anshupa LakeCuttackOdisha
Ashtamudi LakeKollamKerala
Badkhal LakeFaridabadHaryana
Barua Sagar TalBarua Sagar cityUttar Pradesh
Belasagar LakeKulpaharUttar Pradesh
Bellandur LakeBengaluruKarnataka
Berijam LakeDindigulTamil Nadu
Bhimtal LakeBhimtalUttarakhand
Blue Bird LakeHisarHaryana
Brahma SarovarThanesarHaryana
Brighu LakeKulluHimachal Pradesh
Chandra TaalLahaul and SpitiHimachal Pradesh
Chandubi LakeGuwhataiAssam
Chembarambakkam LakeChennaiTamil Nadu
Chilka LakePuriOdisha
Dal LakeSrinagarJammu and Kashmir
Dashir LakeKeylongHimachal Pradesh
Deepor BeelGuwahatiAssam
Dhankar LakeKulluHimachal Pradesh
Dhebar LakeUdaipurRajasthan
DoditalDehradunUttarakhand
Dudh TalaiUdaipurRajasthan
Durgam CheruvuHyderabadTelangana
East Calcutta WetlandsKolkataWest Bengal
Fateh Sagar LakeUdaipurRajasthan
Gorewada LakeNagpurMaharashtra
Gurudongmar LakeNorth SikkimSikkim
Haflong LakeSilcharAssam
Hamirsar LakeBhujGujarat
Harike WetlandTarn Taran SahibPunjab
Hebbal LakeBengaluruKarnataka
Himayat SagarHyderabadTelangana
Hussain SagarHyderabadTelangana
Kanjia lakeBhubaneswarOdisha
Kanjli WetlandKapurthalaPunjab
Kankaria LakeAhmedabadGujarat
Kanwar LakeBegusaraiBihar
Karanji lakeMysoreKarnataka
Kareri lakeDharamsalaHimachal Pradesh
Karna LakeUchanaHaryana
Kaylana LakeJodhpurRajasthan
Keetham LakeAgraUttar Pradesh
Khajjiar LakeChambaHimachal Pradesh
Khecheopalri LakePelling, West SikkimSikkim
Kodaikanal LakeKodaikanalTamil Nadu
Kolleru LakeVijayawadaAndhra Pradesh
Kukkarahalli lakeMysoreKarnataka
Lake CholamuNorth SikkimSikkim
Lake SalusagarSikar Rajasthan
Lake TsongmoEast SikkimSikkim
Lakhota LakeJamnagarGujarat
Lalbagh Lake BengaluruKarnataka
Lingambudhi Lake MysoreKarnataka
Loktak LakeMoirangManipur
Lonar LakeLonarMaharashtra
Lower Lake, BhopalBhopalMadhya Pradesh
Maanaanchira LakeKozhikodeKerala
Macchial LakeMandiHimachal Pradesh
Madiwala Lake BengaluruKarnataka
Maharana Pratap SagarKangraHimachal Pradesh
Man Sagar lakeJaipurRajasthan
Manasbal LakeSrinagarJammu and Kashmir
Manimahesh LakeChambaHimachal Pradesh
Manimahesh LakeChambaHimachal Pradesh
Mansar LakeJammuJammu and Kashmir
Mir Alam TankHyderabadTelangana
Moti Jheel, KanpurKanpurUttar Pradesh
Nainital LakeNainitalUttarakhand
Nakki LakeSirohiRajasthan
Nako LakeKinnaurHimachal Pradesh
Nal SarovarAhmedabad-WestGujarat
Narayan SarovarBhujGujarat
NaukuchiatalNainitalUttarakhand
Ooty LakeUdhagamandalamTamil Nadu
Osman SagarHyderabadTelangana
Pachpadra LakeBarmerRajasthan
Padinjare chira LakeThrissurKerala
Palak Dil LakeSaihaMizoram
Pampa SarovarKoppalKarnataka
Pandoh LakeMandiHimachal Pradesh
Pangong TsoJammuJammu and Kashmir
Paravur KayalKollamKerala
Pashan LakePuneMaharashtra
Pichola lakeUdaipurRajasthan
Powai LakeMumbaiMaharashtra
Prashar LakeMandiHimachal Pradesh
Pulicat LakeCoromandel CoastAndhra Pradesh & Tamil Nadu border
Punnamada Lake or Vembanad lakeAlappuzhaKerala
Pushkar LakeAjmerRajasthan
Puttenahalli Lake BengaluruKarnataka
Rabindra Sarobar LakeKolkataWest Bengal
Rajsamand LakeKankroliRajasthan
Ramgarh LakeJaipurRajasthan
Ramgarh Taal LakeGorakhpurUttar Pradesh
Rangsagar lakeUdaipurRajasthan
Rankala LakeKolhapurMaharashtra
Red Hills Lake or Puzhal lakeChennaiTamil Nadu
Renuka LakeSirmourHimachal Pradesh
Rewalsar LakeMandiHimachal Pradesh
Ropar WetlandRupnagarPunjab
Sambhar Salt LakeJaipurRajasthan
Sankey LakeBengaluruKarnataka
Sannihit SarovarThanesarHaryana
Santragachhi LakeSantragachhiWest Bengal
Saroornagar LakeHyderabadTelangana
Sattal Lake BhimtalUttarakhand
Senchal LakeDarjeelingWest Bengal
Seruvalsar LakeChambaHimachal Pradesh
Shamirpet LakeHyderabadTelangana
Shasthamkotta lakeKollamKerala
Sheikha JheelAligarhUttar Pradesh
Sheshnag LakeAnantnagJammu and Kashmir
Shivajisagar lakeSataraMaharashtra
Sholavaram LakeThiruvallurTamil Nadu
Siliserhlake, AlwarAlwarRajasthan
Singanallur LakeCoimbatoreTamil Nadu
Son BeelKarimganjAssam
Suraj TaalLahaul and SpitiHimachal Pradesh
Surajkund LakeSunamHaryana
Sursagar LakeVadodaraGujarat
Swaroopsagar lakeUdaipurRajasthan
Talao Pali LakeThaneMaharashtra
Tam Dil LakeAizawlMizoram
Thol LakeAhmedabad (West)Gujarat
Tilyar LakeRohtakHaryana
Tso MoririJammuJammu and Kashmir
Ulsoor Lake BengaluruKarnataka
Umiam LakeShillongMeghalaya
Upper LakeBhopalMadhya Pradesh
Upvan LakeThaneMaharashtra
VadakkechiraThrissurKerala
Vastrapur LakeAhmedabad (West)Gujarat
Veeranam LakeCuddaloreTamil Nadu
Vellayani LakeThiruvananthapuramKerala
Venna LakeMahabaleshwarMaharashtra
Wular LakeSrinagarJammu and Kashmir
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8 Popular Nobel Award Winners in India

The Nobel Prize is an honor which is among the highest privileges which can be presented to anyone for any work of excellence. It is presented to those who have significantly contributed in six particular fields which are Nobel Prize for Physics, the Nobel Prize for Chemistry, the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, the Nobel Prize for Literature, and the Nobel Prize for Peace and also the Nobel Prize for Economic Sciences. The Nobel Prize was named after its founder Alfred Nobel. In 1895, Nobel declared for all of his wealth to be given an award to those working for the development of the above fields.

Over the years many Indians have worked hard and received Nobel Prizes for their contribution in various fields such as in Literature, Physics, Mathematics, Peace, Chemistry. Some of these men are remembered even today with the utmost respect and honor. They contributed to the nation’s and the world’s development. The timeline of these awards has been from 1913 to 2014. All these people have made a significant contribution in their fields. India is also the first Asian country to have a citizen of their’s receive the Nobel Prize and has continued to do so.

If you wish to know more about some of these most notable Nobel Prize winners, we have compiled a list of 8 Popular Nobel Winners in India:


1. Rabindranath Tagore – The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913

Rabindranath Tagore's Portrait

Rabindranath Tagore is a man often interpreted as one of the greatest writers, song composers, painters and much more. He was bestowed the prestigious award “because of his deeply delicate, vivid and elegant poetry, by which, with absolute skill, he has made his poetic insight, manifested in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West”. In 1913, he became the first Asian and also the first non-European to have won the Nobel Prize. Tagore has composed the national anthems such as India’s ‘Jana Gana Mana’ and Bangladesh’s ‘Amar Shonar Bangla’. Also his poetry seems to be the inspiration behind Sri Lanka’s National Anthem.


2. CV Raman – The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930

Sir CV Raman when he was young

Sir CV Raman is a name every kid in the nation knows. He was bestowed the prestigious award “For his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him”. He discovered the ‘Raman Effect’ – the phenomenon of in which the rays which are deflected see a change in wavelength. Though, it is said that Raman was sure that he’ll win this award in 1928 and 1929 but was disappointed and for the 1930 Nobel awards, he had already booked his tickets before the announcement.


3. Mother Teresa – The Nobel Peace Prize 1979

Beautiful portrait of Mother Teresa

“For work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitutes a threat to peace”, Mother Teresa was awarded the prestigious Nobel Peace Prize. She was born in the Republic of Macedonia but arrived in India when she was 19 and started her apprentice in Darjeeling. All her life she worked as a Roman Catholic nun in which she worked as a missionary serving for the betterment of the poor. In 1979, she was given this prize and the Roman Church also canonized her after 19 years of her death.


4. Amartya Sen – The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998

AmartyaSen after giving lecture

“For his contributions to welfare economics”, Amartya Sen was bestowed with the Nobel Prize in Economic Studies. He was given this prize in 1998. This was all because of his various contributions in the economic theories of famines, welfare economics, economic and social justice, social choice theory, and various other measures he took for the well-being of citizens in developing countries. Memorial Prize (1998), Bharat Ratna (1999) and Johan Skytte Prize (2017) are some of the other prestigious prizes awarded to his work.


5. Kailash Satyarthi – The Nobel Peace Prize 2014

present photo of Kailash Satyarthi

Today, Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai are two names which are held with great respect. They both jointly received the Nobel Prize in 2014, “for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of children to education”. Bachpan Bachao Andolan, Global March Against Child Labour, and Good Weave International are some of his major contributions as a child activist. Harvard’s University’s ‘Humanitarian of the Year’ award in 2015, Defenders of Democracy Award (US) in 2009, and Gold medal of the Italian Senate in 2007 are some other important awards given to him.


6. Har Gobind Khorana – The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Youthful image of Har Gobind Khorana

In 1968, Har Gobind Khorana was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. He won the award along with Marshall W. Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley. He was an Indian-born American biochemist. They won this prize “for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”. The work by the three of them proved that the process of synthesis of protein in the cells is controlled by nucleotide which are present in nucleic acids (which are called the genetic code carrier of the cell).


7. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar – The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983

Nephew of CV Raman, Chandrasekhar

The next name on this list of prestigious names is of the nephew of Sir CV Raman, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. He won The Nobel Prize in Physics “for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars”, in 1983. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was born in India but ultimately moved to the US. The physical process required for the evolution of stars was established by his discoveries. He also founded the Chandrasekhar limit, which is the upper limit of a white dwarf’s mass.


8. Venkatraman Ramakrishnan – The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009

Present picture of Ramakrishnan

“For studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan was granted the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He was awarded the prize along with Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath, in 2009. Ramakrishnan is an American-British structural biologist who has an Indian origin. Presently, he serves as the President of the Royal Society. Along with Nobel Prize he has been awarded many prestigious awards such as Padma Vibhusha, Louis-Jeantet Prize for Medicine, Guggenheim Fellowship for Natural Science, and many more.

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10 Biggest and Popular Indian Companies (Govt. and Private)

India is a very fast developing nation and its economy is one of the main reasons for it. India’s economy is 6th largest in the world in terms of nominal GDP. However, India’s rank in per capita GDP is very low, which is 139th. But India’s economy is developing very fast and the reason for this is the companies that contribute to India’s economy. It includes are both Governments owned as well as private. The government-owned companies contribute 38 percent to the total revenue and private ones contribute 56.7 percent to the total revenue.

Both of these sectors have shown very heavy growth throughout the years making Indian economy stronger. To make a list of India’s top companies we have considered a factor called market capitalization, which is the product of the company’s share price and the total number of stocks. So’ here is a list of Top 10 India’s Biggest and Popular Companies.

1. TATA Consultancy Services (TCS)

TATA Consultancy Services, TCS

TATA Consultancy Services often called as TCS is an Indian tech private giant which was formed in 1968 and has its headquarters in Mumbai, Maharashtra. TCS basically deals with IT services and business-related consultancy services. It is India’s biggest company in terms of market capitalization, which is a whopping Rs 473,149.01 crore. Its annual revenue is $16.54 billion. TCS has also named 64th most Most Innovative Company in the world in a Forbe’s list. TATA Consultancy Services is one of the main employers of the private sector of India. They have 378,500 employees in offices across 46 countries.


2. Reliance Industries Limited (RIL)

Reliance Industries Limited- RIL

Reliance Industries Limited is also a private company which was formed back in the year 1966. Its headquarters is also located in Mumbai and is often called as RIL. It has a market capitalization of Rs. 459,006.5 crore and has an annual revenue equal to $44 billion. RIL basically deals in a lot of fields that includes petroleum, natural gas, petrochemicals, textiles, retail, telecommunications, and production of polyester. Reliance Industries Limited has a total 187,729 employees.


3. HDFC Bank

HDFC Bank- Banking

HDFC is a private Bank that deals in banking and financial services. It was formed in 1994 and it is the second-largest private company in terms of total assets. It has 4,281 branches and over 12,054 ATMs all over India where 90,421 employees work. It has a total market capitalization of Rs. 366,692.6 crore, which makes it the third entry on our list. Last year HDFC made a revenue of $11 billion. HDFC was first formed in 1977 as the name of Housing Development Finance Corporation, which was a mortgage company. IN 1994 it was opened as a banking and financial service.


4. ITC Limited

ITC Limited- Consumer Goods

ITC is an Indian multinational company, which deals in five segments that include consumer goods, hotels, paperboards & packaging, Information Technology, and Agri-Business. It is one of the oldest companies in India and it was formed back in 1910. It has a market capitalization of Rs. 338,582.98 crore and an annual revenue of $8 billion. Its headquarters is located in Kolkata, West Bengal, India and it has 60 offices in India. ITC has a total 25,000 employees and a net income of $1.4 billion. In 1910 ITC was formed by the name of Imperial Tobacco Company but in 1970 its name was changed to India Tobacco Company.


5. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation

ONGC- Oil

Oil and Natural Gas Corporation often called as ONGC is a Government-owned company. As its name suggests it deals in Oil and Natural Gas. It was formed back in 1956 and it produces 77% of crude oil and 62% of Natural Gas of the whole of India. It has a huge market capitalization of Rs. 239,019.01 crore and annual revenue of $21 billion. IN 2017 ONGC generated Rs. 81,399.36 crore. Its headquarters is located in New Delhi and it has a total Rs. 81,399.36 crore. Earlier ONGC has its headquarters in Dehradun, the capital of state Uttarakhand.


6. State Bank of India

State Bank of India- Banking

State Bank of India is often called as SBI it is a Government company that deals in banking and finance. It is a multinational company and has offices in 36 countries with over 14,000 branches. It was formed in 1955. Currently, its headquarters is located in Mumbai, Maharashtra and it deals in consumer banking, corporate banking, finance and insurance, investment banking, and mortgage loans. It has a market capitalization of Rs. 237,092.15 crore and an annual revenue of $41 billion.


7.) Housing Development Finance Corporation (HDFC)

Housing Development Finance Corporation HDFC- Housing

Don’t get confused by the HDFC bank which we have mentioned earlier. It is the parent company of HDFC bank, which was formed in 1977. Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited (HDFC) basically deals in housing finance. HDFC has funded 50 lakh units till now which include both housing and non-housing loans. It has a total market capitalization of Rs. 236,328.46 crore and an annual revenue of $4.63 billion. Its total net income is $1.06 billion and its headquarters is located in Mumbai, Maharashtra.


8. Infosys

Infosys- IT

Infosys was formed in 1981 and it is India’s largest IT company. It is a multinational company it provides various services that include business consulting, information technology and outsourcing services. It has its headquarters in Bengaluru, Karnataka. Infosys has 85 sales and marketing offices and 114 development centers around the globe. Its market capitalization is Rs. 228,764.2 crore and has an annual revenue of $10.1 billion. It is one of the biggest employers in India with more than 199,829 employees.


9. Hindustan Unilever Limited

Hindustan Unilever Limited- Consumer Products

Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) is not a completely Indian company its 67 percent share is owned by an Anglo-Dutch company called Unilever. It was formed back in 1933 and deals in consumer products like foods, beverages, cleaning agents, water purifiers and personal care products. It has 35 sub-brands that include some big names like Lux, Dove, Fair & Lovely, and Pears. HUL has 60 lakh outlets in India and its market capitalization is Rs. 202,435.43 crore with an annual revenue of $4.5 billion.


10. Maruti Suzuki

Maruti Suzuki- Cars

Maruti Suzuki was formed as Maruti Udyog but now when its 56.21% share is owned by Japanese auto-giant Suzuki it is called as Maruti Suzuki. It is the auto giant of India by owning 51% share of the Indian passenger car market, which can be clearly called dominating. Currently, 12,900 employees are working for Maruti Suzuki and its headquarters is located in New Delhi. Maruti has produced some of the most popular cars in India that include Swift Dzire, Ciaz, Wagon R, Alto, Omni and many more. It has a market capitalization of Rs. 191,591.26 crore and an annual revenue of $8.7 billion.