India is a country with a history dating back to 5000 years. During these years India has witnessed many geographical, cultural and political changes accompanied by many technological advancements too. But there is also a population of India that still lives in the forests. These are primitive tribes in India. These are the people who still believe in their very roots and have refused the way to the modern world (for most of the part).
These tribes have their home all over India and have different cultural and spiritual beliefs. They are the people who gave an overview that how human life was thousand years ago when all of this technology all around wasn’t even conceived. So’ here is a list of 10 Oldest and Major Tribes in India.
The Gond have most of their homes located in regions of Central India. Specifically speaking in Chhindwara district of the state of Madhya Pradesh. Furthermore, Bastar district located in Chhattisgarh is also their home. Alongside these parts of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and Orissa are also some places where they can be found. In Madhya Pradesh, Kanha and Bandhavgarh and Gondi forests are the home for Gonds. The Gond tribes basically are known to speak various languages like Telugu, Hindi, and some other Dravidian languages. Kodo or Kutki are two dishes which are popular among Gonds. Furthermore, most of the Gonds are meat consumers.
Bhils are mostly spotted in the state of Rajasthan. This community has most of their homes located in the Aravali Ranges in Udaipur and some regions of Dungarpur and Banswara. Furthermore, the Bhil tribes are also found in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Tripura. Bhils basically follow the typical Rajasthani culture that includes Ghoomar dance, Than Gair, which is a traditional drama and Baneshwar Fair held in the month of January or February. Bhils have their very own language which is known as Bhilli, which is an Indo-Aryan language. Alongside all of these Bhil tribes have a tremendous number of mansions in the history books too.
The Santhal tribes are one of the major tribes in the state of West Bengal. Specifically speaking their homes are located in the districts of Bankura and Purulia. Some other regions where the can be spotted are parts of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Assam. The Santhals mostly make their living on agriculture and livestock. Alongside these, they are also known for the art of hunting. They are also famous for the Santhali dance and their music. Alongside it, their festivals like Karam, Maghe, Asaria, Disum Sendra, and Namah also attracts a lot of tourists too.
4. Great Andamanese Tribe
As the name says Great Andamanese Tribe live in Andaman islands. This tribe has the Onge, Jarawa, Jangil, and Sentinelese people, these are the native people of Andaman island. But today most of them are on edge of extinction and some of them have already died out. For instance, Boa, who were speakers of Khora and Bo languages have been instinct since 2010. The current population of the Great Andamanese Tribes is heavily dependent on the various campaign by Indian organizations. It is very hard to find a difference between all of these tribes due to their similar dresses and complexion.
Khasi tribe is located in the mountains of Meghalaya. Who are known for their music, and instruments like drums, guitars, flutes, and wooden pipes. Khasi people are heavily popular among tourists due to this reason. The Khasi people are mostly found in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya. Alongside Khasi hills, they are also spotted in parts of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, and even West Bengal. Khasi people are known to speak an Austro- Asiatic language and are known for their traditional dresses, which are known as Jainsem and Jymphong for men and woman respectively.
Alongside the Khasi tribe, Meghalaya is also home to the Garo Tribes, which are known for their distinct lifestyle. They can also be spotted in the areas of Bangladesh and regions of West Bengal, Assam, and Nagaland. What makes Garo tribes different from the other tribes of Meghalaya is their appearance. Garo women are known to wear varieties of traditional ornaments and men wear turbans with feathers stuck behind them. The Garo people are known for their architectural achievements like Nokmong, Nokpante, Jamsireng, and Jamaal, which are abstracts that you can capture with your camera.
Angami is basically a Naga tribe which is known for its Hornbill Festival. They are found in the state of North East India, Nagaland. They are one of the major tribes of Nagaland and have a large population all around Kohima. Alongside the Hornbill Festival, the thing that attracts the tourist the most is Angami Naga’s fine bamboo work, cane furniture, beds, shawls, and powerful machetes. The Angami people speak a language called as the Angami Language which can be identified with various names such as Gnamei, Ngami, Tsoghami, and Monr. Furthermore, they are also known for their dressing style which is white Mhoushu and black Lohe for men and for women a Mechala along with various ornaments like Beads, pendants, bangles, and bracelets. Angami Nagas are meat eaters and are known for various pork dishes.
Mundas are mostly found in the Chota Nagpur Plateau which is located in the dense forests of Jharkhand. They can also be spotted in the states of West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Odisha which are also homes to the Munda Tribes. Munda tribes live a very and basic lifestyle and they follow the Sarna religion and worship a God called Singbonga. They are also famous for a dance form called Nupur and their festivals that attracts the tourist are Mage, Phagu, Karam, and Sarhul. Munda tribes are known to speak a language called as Mundari.
Bhutia tribe is the major tribe living in the Himalayan mountains of Sikkim. The Bhutias are very popular for their traditional grandeur, art, and cuisine. Their cuisine is known for a unique recipe of momo, meat dumplings, and thupka, which are all very delicious and popular dishes all over India. Bhutia tribe are very popular among tourists for their Losar and Loosong festivals and dance, music, and religion. Bhutias are basically meat eaters and have some very popular meat dishes.
The Chenchu tribes are people of Andhra Pradesh and are mostly spotted in the middle of the forest of Nallamala Hills. They are mostly found in the districts known as Mahboobnagar, Nalgonda, Prakasam, Guntur, and Kurnool. Chenchu lives a very hard life and they are largely dependent on hunting and trading of various jungle products like roots, fruits, mahua flower, honey, gum, tamarind and green leaves. Chechu tribes are known to speak a language with a Telegu accent and these people are skilled in a various form of arts and crafts. Chenchu performs various rituals that attract a lot of tourists.