Waterfalls, also called cascades are truly magnificent features found in nature. They display the beauty of nature explicitly. Waterfalls are also a great center of attraction for tourists and bring a lot of tourism in the place where they are situated. Many thrill seekers also find big and beautiful cascades as a means of fulfilling their adventures.
Waterfalls are formed when a stream of water brings in agents of erosion or sediments like silt, gravel etc. with it. These sediments erode the soft rocks like sandstone or lime stone, plunging the rock below. As the steepness of the rock increases, the velocity of the stream along with the sediments also increases and erosion of the bedrock further intensifies. This erosion is carried on till only hard rocks like granite remain. These granite formations form cliffs and ledges which become the waterfall. At the base of a waterfall, the erosion can be really intense and form whirlpools. The area behind the cascade becomes a hollow structure that resembles a cave, also known as “Rock Shelter”. This rock shelter also breaks and the process continues.
Waterfalls can be classified into many types depending on their Volume, Width or Length.
India is also home to a large number of waterfalls. Many of these attract tourists from all over the world.
Given below are 10 Most Popular Waterfalls in India:
1. Jog Falls, Karnataka
The Jog Falls is situated in the Shimoga District of Karnataka. It is the second highest plunge waterfall of India with a height of 253 meters. It is also know as Gerosoppa Falls. Jog falls is a major tourist attraction of Karnataka. It is one of the biggest waterfalls by volume in the country with a flow rate of 5387 cubic meters per second. The water flow is so enormous that it can be felt in the nearby rocks.
2. Athirappilly Falls, Kerala
Athirappilly Falls, is located in Athirappilly, in the Thrissur District of Kerala. It falls from the Chalakudy River, originating from the upper extent of the Western Ghats at the entrance to the Sholayar mountain ranges.It is the largest waterfall in Kerala, which stands tall at 80 feet. Just a short drive from Athirappilly to the Vazhachal falls, which is close to dense green forests that are home to many endangered and endemic species of flora and fauna.
3. Thalaiyar Falls, Tamil Nadu
Thalaiyar Falls, is also called the Rat Tail Falls is situated in Devadanapatti of Theni District, Tamil Nadu State, South India. Thalaiyar Falls is 975 feet (297 m) high and is the highest waterfall of Tamil Nadu, and the sixth highest cascade of India and the 267th highest waterfall of the entire world.
4. Nahkalikai Falls, Meghalaya
Nohkalikai Falls is the tallest plunge cascade of India. It is 1115 feet or 340 metres high. This waterfall is situated near Cherrapunji, one of the wettest places on the entire planet. Nohkalikai Falls is fed by the rainwater that is collected on the top of a relatively small plateau and it decreases in power during the dry season like December till February. Below the Nahkalikai Falls there has been formed a plunge pool with unusually green colored water.
5. Bhimlat Falls, Rajasthan
Research data shows us that the Bhimlat was figured due to an earthquake that occurred in the 8th century. The cascade may be only 60 metres in height, but the fact that it is situated in Rajasthan, is really breathtaking.
6. Dudhsagar Falls, Goa
Dudhsagar Falls which literally translates to “Sea of Milk” is a four-tiered cascade which is located on the Mandovi River in the state of Goa of the Indian subcontinent. It is located at a distance of 60 km from Panaji by road and lies on the Madgaon-Belagavi rail route about 46 km from Madgaon and 80 kilometers south of Belagavi. Dudhsagar Falls is one of India’s tallest waterfalls with a height reaching 310 m or (1017 feet) and has an average breadth of 30 meters or (100 feet)
7. Chitrakot Falls, Odisha
The Chitrakoot Falls is a natural cascade which is situated near Jagdalpur, in Bastar district in the state of Chhattisgarh on the Indravati River. It is also situated at a range of 38 kilometres to the west of Jagdalpur. The height of the Chitrakoot falls is about 29 metres or (95 ft). It is the widest waterfall in the country. Because of this very reason, during the monsoon season, it is also called the Niagara Falls of India.
8. Kune Falls, Pune
Kune Falls is located at a height of 622 m and lies against the stunning leeward of the famous Sahyadri Mountains also called the Western Ghats. It is a three-tiered cascade falling down from a height of about 200 m and must be visited by people travelling to Lonavala. The cascade is dichotomous into 2 parts and the tallest fall of this three-tier cascade is of about 100 m in height. This place is entirely surrounded by plush green vegetative cover and provides a beautiful scenery.
9. Hogenakkal Falls, Tamil Nadu
Hogenakkal is situated in South India on the Kaveri river of the Dharmapuri district in the state of Tamil Nadu. It is situated at about 180 km or (110 mi) from Bangalore city and 46 km or (29 mi) from Dharmapuri District. It is sometimes called as the “Niagara Falls of India,” it is also famous for its bathing areas and the hide boat rides, projecting this as the most popular tourist site. Carbonatite rocks are also found on this site and are believed to be the oldest of its type in the South Asian Continent and some of the oldest on the planet. The Government of the state of Tamil Nadu proposed to convert the cascade to provide drinking water for Tamil Nadu.
10. Shivanasamudra Falls, Karnataka
The Shivanasamudra Falls is located on the Kaveri River, after the river had found its course through the rocks and hills of the Deccan Plateau of India and falls down to form a beautiful cascade. The town named Shivanasamudra parts the Kaveri river into two cascades. This creates the fourth biggest island in Kaveri’s course.
It has a width of about 305 meters or (1,001 ft), and a height of about 98 m or (322 ft), and an average volume of about 934 cubic metres per second or (33,000 cu ft/s).