Agriculture is the very base of civilisation. Ever since we learnt to grow and hoard crops, nomadic nature of human beings came to an end and people could provide themselves with sustenance. Civilisations like Harappa and Mohenjodaro flourished because they had efficient agricultural techniques and ways of storing the harvest. These civilisations laid the foundations of agriculture in India.
Indian sub-continent is the second most populated country of the world with a population of 132.42 crores (2016). India’s economy is a developing mixed economy, still agriculture provides employment to a little over 50 percent of the entire population. This makes agriculture an indispensable asset to the country.
Cash crops like Cotton and Sugar are exported from India to other parts of the country, which contribute to the fast growing economy of the country. India is one of the leading producers of crops like wheat and rice and the Government provides subsidised rates on these crops so that they are affordable for the masses.
Agriculture in India is majorly monsoon dependent as a large part of the sub-continent does not have access to perennial sources of water. Therefore, if in a certain season, monsoon fails, it makes a huge impact on several crops throughout the country.
Northern parts of India are blessed with perennial rivers and therefore have proper means of irrigation along with improvised agricultural techniques, which makes states like Punjab the Granaries of the country. Whereas most of the other parts depend on seasonal rains and other irrigation methods to grow crops.
Here is a list of 10 Largest Agriculture Producing States Of India:
1. Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh is the largest agriculture producing state of India. It is the largest producer of wheat along with being the largest producer of sugarcane and food grains in the country. Uttar Pradesh is also the second largest producer of rice, bajra, barley and other pulses. Making it an essential agricultural state of the country, it is majorly because Uttar Pradesh is fed its rains by the South West monsoons, North East Monsoons and a little by the Western Disturbances.
2. West Bengal
West Bengal is the second largest state bringing agriculture in the country. It is the leading producer of:
West Bengal is also the second largest producer of Tea. This state has the most number of leading crop productions and has an extensive agricultural network. India is the second largest rice producing country of the world only next to China, which is the leading rice producing country of the world. Jute is also an important cash crop as it is exported to other countries as well and its production as to do with the moist climate of the state. The state also produces sesamum and tobacco.
Punjab ranks third in agricultural production in the country. It produces crops like rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton and food grains. It is the third largest producer of not only wheat but also paddy. It is also the third largest producer of food grains. Crops like rice, cotton and sugarcane are produced in the Kharif season and because Punjab state is one of the best irrigated states of the country, it favours the growth of many agricultural crops. The lands are plain and extensive farming can be done on this land.
Neighbouring Punjab, Haryana is the fourth largest agricultural state of the country. The crops produced in this state are wheat, paddy, sunflower, and sugarcane etc. However, it is the second largest producer of sunflower in the country. Punjab and Haryana collectively are called the Granaries of the country. Like its neighbouring state, Haryana is also well irrigated and blooms the production of many food crops.
5. Madhya Pradesh
This central Indian state ranks 5th amongst the largest agriculture producing states. This state produces several pluses like tur, urad, soyabean etc. In fact it is the largest producer of these pulses in the country. The state also produces grains like wheat and maize and is the second largest producer of both wheat and maize. Madhya Pradesh produces a lot of crops, which are majorly food crops and are for domestic use only.
Chhattisgarh is called the “Rice Bowl of Central India“ and it stands 6th amongst the largest agriculture producing sates of India. The main crops of this area are rice, maize and some other millets like oilseeds, and groundnuts etc. In Chhattisgarh, rice the staple crop i.e. rice is sown in about 77 percent of the entire area. Chhattisgarh is mainly dependent on rains for water as only 20 percent of the total area of the state is under irrigation.
There are three agro-climatic zones in Chhattisgarh and about 73 percent of the Chhattisgarh plains, 97 percent of the Bastar Plateau and 95 percent of the Northern Hills are rain fed.
Odisha is a major agricultural state of India. The agriculture sector alone contributes to about 30% of the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP), more than 60% population of the state depends on agriculture which results in low per capita income in the farm sector. The farmed area is about 87.46 lakh hectares out of which only 18.79 lakh hectares are irrigated. Climate and soil play an essential role in its agricultural economy. A major part of the farm land depends on rains for feeding the crops. The rivers are also rain fed, and farmers depend on rains for nourishing crops like rice, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, rubber, tea, coffee etc.
8. Andhra Pradesh
Agriculture provides employment to nearly 62 percent of the total population of Andhra Pradesh. Rice is a major crop and staple food of Andhra, contributing to about 77 percent of the total food grains. Other important crops of the state are bajra, jowar, maize, small millets, ragi, pulses, tobacco, castor cotton and sugarcane.
Agriculture plays an essential part in developing the economy of Telangana State and the better performance of this sector is needed for inclusive magnification.Total Geographical area of Telangana is 114.84 lakh hectares with a Gross Cropped Area of 62.88 lakh hectares in 2013-14.Telangana Government is making a strategy so that the State becomes the “Seed Bowl” of the country. Telangana also produces crops like rice, mango, sugarcane and tobacco.
In Karnataka, agriculture is the most essential part of its economy. The topographical features of the state of Karnataka such as the state’s soil, climate and relief etc. greatly support the agriculture in Karnataka. The Kharif crops in Karnataka are paddy (rice), maize, millets, moong dal (pulses), red chillies, groundnuts, cotton, sugarcane, rice, soyabean and turmeric. It is also called the Autumn harvest as they are farmed with the starting of the first rains in the month of July. The major Rabi crops of this state are barley, wheat, sesame, mustard and peas.